Turin king list: Column 5

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Column
26 rows — 22 kings.

The fragments form twenty-six rows, but most of the names are missing, including all the kings of the Sixth Dynasty. After the four lines of summations for the previous dynasties, the list continues with the rulers of Herakleopolis.

Table 1: Overview of column 5
RowsRemarksKings
1–13Sixth Dynasty13
14–17Summation for Sixth Dynasty
18–26Ninth/Tenth dynasties9
Quick reference key
ditto markImplied repeating text (ditto marks) is represented in blue.
missingMissing signs that can be restored are represented in grey.
RedSigns written with red ink are presented in red.
...Signs that are lost or unreadable is represented by 3 dots.
Column 5.1
the Turin king list 5.1 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.1 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.1 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... x years, 6 months, 21 days
nsw-bit ... rnpt x Ꜣbdw 6 hrw 21

KingTeti (40th king)DynastyVI (1)
GardinerIV 1Fragment59 + ?
The name is lost, as is the number of years, only the months and days remain. The signs before the numbers are undecipherable. The fragment containing traces of the month ligature (Ꜣbdw) was incorrectly moved by Ibscher, as there is a fibre correspondence in the original position by Seyffarth.1 The name is lost in lacuna, however Teti is the known successor of Unas in the other king lists.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 34ttiTeti
Karnak Canon 14[sꜢ-rꜤ]-ttiTeti
Saqqara Canon 26ttiTeti
Africanus: VI (1)ΟθοηςOthoēs (30 years)
Eusebius: V (1)ΟθοηςOthoēs
1.   Ryholt 1997: 30, n. 78
Column 5.2
the Turin king list 5.2 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.2 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.2 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUserkara (41st king)DynastyVI (2)
GardinerIV 2Fragment59
The record is lost, but a poorly attested Userkara is present between Teti and Pepi I in the Abydos Canon, suggesting this could be the case here too.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 35wsr-kꜢ-rꜤUserkara
Column 5.3
the Turin king list 5.3 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.3 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.3 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 20 years
nsw-bit ... rnpt 20

KingPepi I (42nd king)DynastyVI (3)
GardinerIV 3Fragment59
The reign (or the entire record) was likely interchanged with (5.4), emending the reign of Pepi I to 44 years. This agrees with the archaeological records, as Pepi I reigned between 25 to 50 years, while his son and successor only ruled around ten years.1 Champollion's tiny fragment Tt is part of fr. 59 around the 20-sign.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 36mry-rꜤMeryra
Karnak Canon 15ppyPepi
Saqqara Canon 25ppyPepi
Africanus: VI (2)ΦιοςPhios (53 years)
1.   Ryholt 1997: 13-14
Column 5.4
the Turin king list 5.4 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.4 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.4 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 44 years
nsw-bit ... rnpt 44

KingNemtiemsaf I (43rd king)DynastyVI (4)
GardinerIV 4Fragment59
The reign (or the entire record) was likely interchanged with (5.3), making the correct reign 20 years for this king.1 The trace just before the '4' is not the top of a 10-sign, but a dot of the hieratic number 40,2 which is now partly obscured by a piece of transparent tape.3 Champollion's tiny fragment Tt is part of fr. 59 around the 4 sign.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 37mr.n-rꜤMerenra
Karnak Canon 16mr.n-rꜤMerenra
Saqqara Canon 24mr.n-rꜤMerenra
Africanus: VI (3)ΜεθουσουφιςMethousouphis (7 years)
1.   Ryholt 1997: 13-14
2.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (IV 4 a)
3.   Ryholt 2000: 90, note 15.
Column 5.5
the Turin king list 5.5 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.5 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.5 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 90 + x years
nsw-bit ... rnpt 90 + x

KingPepi II (44th king)DynastyVI (5)
GardinerIV 5Fragment133 + 59
This entry can only belong to Pepi II due to the long reign recorded.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 38nfr-kꜢ-rꜤNeferkara
Saqqara Canon 23nfr-kꜢ-rꜤNeferkara
Africanus: VI (4)ΦιωψPhiops (94 years)
Eusebius: V (4)ΦιωψPhiops (94 years)
Eratosthenes: 20AπαππουςApappous (99 years)
Column 5.6
the Turin king list 5.6 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.6 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.6 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 1 year, 1 month
nsw-bit ... rnpt 1 Ꜣbd 1

KingNemtiemsaf II (45th king)DynastyVI (6)
GardinerIV 6Fragment133 + 40 + 59
The name is lost, but Nemtyemsaf II is listed in the Abydos Canon as the successor of Pepi II. The fibres of fr. 40 correspond with fr. 43, and has been moved here from the unplaced fragments of Gardiner.1 Unfortunately, the photo of the papyrus does not include fr. 40, but the signs on the recto of fr. 40 does not seem to align with fr. 43.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 39mr.n-rꜤ nmty.m-sꜢfMerenra Nemtyemsaf
Africanus: VI (5)ΜενφεσουφιςMenthesouphis (1 year)
Eratosthenes: 21ΕχεσκοσοκαραςEkheskosokaras (1 year)
1.   Ryholt 2000: 88
Column 5.7
the Turin king list 5.7 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.7 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.7 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Netiqerty Siptah, he acted as king for ...
nsw-bit nt-iḳr-ti zꜢ-ptḥ ir.n ...

KingNetjerikara (46th king)DynastyVI (7)
GardinerIV 8 + pl. IXFragment135 + 43 + 40
Fr. 43 has been moved one line up from Gardiner and joins with fr. 40.1 Netiqerty is a phonetic corruption of the similar-sounding Netjerikara, which for a long time was interpreted as belonging to an otherwise unattested Queen Nitocris from Manetho's epitome.2 This row could also have held a lacuna notation (ironically lost in the lacuna) explaining the missing ten kings that does appear in the Abydos Canon.3 The two names following the lacuna notation in (5.8) and (5.9) are clearly incompletely recorded, likely due to a larger lacuna in the original source for this period, and the scribe simply copied what was left. Unfortunately, the photo of the papyrus does not include fr. 40, but the signs on the recto of fr. 40 does not seem to align with fr. 43.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 40nṯr.i-kꜢ-rꜤNetjerikara
Africanus: VI (6)ΝιτωκριςNitōkris (12 years)
Eusebius: VIΝιτωκριςNitōkris
Eratosthenes: 22ΝιτωκριςNitōkris (6 years)
Herodotus: 100.2ΝιτωκριςNitōkris
1.   Ryholt 2000: 88-90
2.   Ryholt 2000: 93
3.   Ryholt 2000: 96ff.
Column 5.8
the Turin king list 5.8 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.8 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.8 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Neferka Khered Seneb ...
nsw-bit nfr-kꜢ ẖrd-snb ...

KingNeferkara Pepiseneb (47th king)DynastyVI (8)
GardinerIV 9 + pl. IXFragment135 + 43 + 40
The names ppy-snb and ẖrd-snb are interchangeable,1 and the ra-sign of Neferkara was probably lost in a lacuna in a vorlage of the Canon. The hieratic snb ligature was inaccurately copied by Lepsius.2 The remaining signs of a larger lacuna in the original source was copied by the scribe, explaining the corrupted name, and perhaps also why the name appears out of order on the Abydos Canon (51), where it should have occupied no. 41. The fibres of fr. 40 correspond with fr. 43, and has been moved here from the unplaced fragments of Gardiner.3 Unfortunately, the photo of the papyrus does not include fr. 40, but the signs on the recto of fr. 40 does not seem to align with fr. 43.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 51nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ ppy-snbNeferkara Pepiseneb
1.   Ryholt 2000: 94
2.   Ryholt 2000: 90f.
3.   Ryholt 2000: 88
Column 5.9
the Turin king list 5.9 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.9 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.9 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Nefer ...
nsw-bit nfr ...

KingNeferkamin Anu (48th king)DynastyVI (9)
GardinerIV 10 + pl. IXFragment43 + 40
There are four signs following the fr-signs; the first looks very much like a s-sign, but is transcribed as the G7-determinative, followed by the two strokes of a closing cartouche,1 and another G7, as read by Gardiner. The signs following s-nfr present in the Abydos Canon, were perhaps lost in a larger lacuna. and the scribe copied the remaining signs in the original source, resulting in an incomplete name.2
The name Sneferka Anu translates to the odd the one whom a ka has made perfect, Anu. The sign emblem for the god Min, R22 (mn) and the door-bolt, O34 (s) look very similar, and a small mistake by a scribe is easily understood. Exchanging the signs makes the corrected name Neferkamin Anu, which gives the more fitting translation of the perfect one of the ka of Min, Anu. The unreadable traces at the end of fr. 40 are present in Lepsius and Wilkinson, but non-existant today.3 Unfortunately, the photo of the papyrus does not include fr. 40, but the signs on the recto of fr. 40 does not seem to align with fr. 43.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 52snfr-kꜢ-ꜤnwSneferka Anu
1.   Möller, Hieratische Paläographie II, No. 532.
2.   Ryholt 2000: 97
3.   Ryholt 2000: 88, wrote "the traces shown in line 9, on fragment 40, are non-existant."
Column 5.10
the Turin king list 5.10 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.10 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.10 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Ibi ... 2 years, 1 month, 1 day
nsw-bit ibi ... rnpt 2 Ꜣbd 1 hrw 1

KingQakara Ibi (49th king)DynastyVI (10)
GardinerIV 11 + V 10Fragment43 + 40 + 61
The prenomen is recorded with the singular –kꜢ in the kings pyramid at Saqqara,1 while the slightly incorrect Abydos Canon use the plural –kꜢw. Unfortunately, the photo of the papyrus does not include fr. 40, but the signs on the recto of fr. 40 does not seem to align with fr. 43.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 53ḳꜢ-kꜢw-rꜤQakaura
Pyramid TextsḳꜢ-kꜢ-rꜤQakara
1.   Ryholt 2000: 99, note a.
Column 5.11
the Turin king list 5.11 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.11 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.11 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 4 years, 2 months 0 days
nsw-bit ... rnpt 4 Ꜣbdw 2 hrw 0

KingUnknown (50th king)DynastyVI (11)
GardinerIV 11Fragment61
The name is lost, only the numbers remain. Neferkaura is attested on the Abydos Canon between Qakaura (53) and Neferkauhor (55).
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 54nfr-kꜢ.w-rꜤNeferkaura
Column 5.12
the Turin king list 5.12 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.12 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.12 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 2 years, 1 month, 1 day
nsw-bit ... rnpt 2 Ꜣbd 1 hrw 1

KingUnknown (51st king)DynastyVI (12)
GardinerIV 12Fragment61
The name is lost, only the numbers remain. Neferkauhor is attested between Neferkaura (54) and Neferirkara (56) on the Abydos Canon.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 55nfr-kꜢw-ḥrNeferkauhor
Column 5.13
the Turin king list 5.13 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.13 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.13 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 1 year and half month
nsw-bit ... rnpt 1 Ꜣbd ½

KingUnknown (52nd king)DynastyVI (13)
GardinerIV 13Fragment61
The name is lost. The ditto mark after the year, makes it clear that the "half"-sign (gs) is recorded as "half a month".1 The Neferirkara of the Abydos Canon is a different First Intermediate Period king from Neferirkara Kakai of the Fifth Dynasty.2
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 56nfr-ir-kꜢ-rꜤNeferirkara
1.   Ryholt 2004: 144, n. 48. Note: a small typo by Ryholt incorrectly quoted entry (5.3) in his note, which is in fact (5.13)
2.   For Neferirkara Kakai, see (4.19).
Column 5.14
the Turin king list 5.14 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.14 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.14 (hieroglyphics)

Total of x kings ... 181 years
... nswyw ... ir.n rnpt 181

 Summation 
GardinerIV 14Fragment44 + 61
First row of summation of the Sixth to Eight Dynasties. The traces of the ir-sign on Fr. 61 is clearly visible on the plates of Farina,1 but not present in the facsimiles of Lepsius and Wilkinson. The restoration by Ryholt suggest the complete reading of the summation.2 Calculating the missing number of kings, is done by counting the number of rows recorded after the previous summation (4.26), which is 13 (i.e. from 5.1 to 5.13).3
Restoration
Ryholt 2000: 89, 94ff.

Hieroglyphic restoration of 5.14 the Turin king list by Ryholt 2000: 89, 94ff.

Total of x kings until Neferkara amounting to 181 years
dmḏ nswyw r-mn nfr-ir-kꜢ-rꜤ x ir.n rnpt 181
1.   Farina 1938: pls. IV and V.
2.   Ryholt 2000: 94 ff., 91
3.   Farina 1938: 32 (IV 15) proposed: [Total] reigns [for the 14 kings of this court makes] 181 years.
Column 5.15
the Turin king list 5.15 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.15 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.15 (hieroglyphics)

6 months, 3 days, and a lacuna of 6 years. Total: 100 + x years. Kings...
... Ꜣbdw 6 hrw 3 wsf 6 dmḏ ... nswywt

 Summation 
GardinerIV 15Fragment44 + 61
Summation continued from (5.14). The sublinear sign is the tail of a 100-sign.1 The summation of the First to Eight Dynasties begins at the end of the line.
Restoration
Ryholt 2000: 89, 94ff.

Hieroglyphic restoration of 5.15 the Turin king list by Ryholt 2000: 89, 94ff.

6 months, 3 days, and a lacuna of 6 years. Total: 187 years, 6 months, 3 days. Total kings
Ꜣbdw 6 hrw 3 wsf 6 dmḏ rnpt 187 Ꜣbdw 6 hrw 3 dmḏ nswywt
1.   Gardiner 1959: 16 ( IV 15 a)
Column 5.16
the Turin king list 5.16 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.16 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.16 (hieroglyphics)

...from Meni, their kingship, their years, and a lacuna thereto: 949 years, 0 months, 15 days, and a lacuna of 6 years
... mni nswyt=sn rnpt=sn wsf ... 949 hrw 15 wsf rnpt 6

 Summation 
GardinerIV 16Fragment44 + 61 + 63
Summation continued from (5.15). The curved line at the end is a sort of bracket around a line that intruded on the next column.
Restoration
Ryholt 2000: 89, 94ff.

Hieroglyphic restoration of 5.16 the Turin king list by Ryholt 2000: 89, 94ff.

from Meni, their kingship, their years, and a lacuna thereto: 949 years, 15 days, and a lacuna of 6 years
mni nswyt=sn rnpt=sn wsf iry rnpt 949 hrw 15 wsf rnpt 6
Column 5.17
the Turin king list 5.17 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.17 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.17 (hieroglyphics)

Total: ... 955 years, 0 months and 10 + x days
dmḏ ... rnpt 955 hrw 10 + x

 Summation 
GardinerIV 17Fragment46 + 44 + 63
Summation continued from (5.16). The number of months is zero, and despite the missing 5 at the end, the number of days can be confidently restored to 15 from the subtotal in 5.16.1
Restoration
Ryholt 2000: 89, 94ff.

Hieroglyphic restoration of 5.17 the Turin king list by Ryholt 2000: 89, 94ff.

Total: 52* kings amounting to 955 years and 15 days
dmḏ 52 ir.n rnpt 955 hrw 15
* i.e. the number of kings from Meni (3.11) to Neferirkara (5.13).
1.   Ryholt 2000: 95f.
2.   Ryholt 2000: 94 ff., 91.
Column 5.18
the Turin king list 5.18 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.18 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.18 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (53rd king)DynastyIX/X (1)
GardinerIV 18Fragment46 + 44 + 63
Only small traces remain of the name of this unidentifiable king, presumably the founder of the Herakleopolitian Ninth dynasty, named Achthoes by Manetho. However, this identification very uncertain, due to the fragmentary state of the papyrus, and could belong to any of the kings of this dynasty.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Africanus: IX (1) AχθoηςAkhthoës
Eusebius: IX (1)AχθoηςAkhthoës
Column 5.19
the Turin king list 5.19 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.19 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.19 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (54th king)DynastyIX/X (2)
GardinerIV 19Fragment46 + 47 + 63
The name of this unidentifiable Herakleopolitan king is unknown, only tiny traces of the title remain.
Column 5.20
the Turin king list 5.20 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.20 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.20 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Neferkara ...
nsw-bit nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ ...

KingNeferkara (55th king)DynastyIX/X (3)
GardinerIV 20Fragment46 + 47
A Herakleopolitan Neferkara is unattested in the other New Kingdom canons, and there are no archaeological finds of a king with this name during this time period.
Column 5.21
the Turin king list 5.21 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.21 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.21 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Kheti ...
nsw-bit ḫt-iti ...

KingKhety (56th king)DynastyIX/X (4)
GardinerIV 21Fragment46 + 47
The A51-sign (šps) is curiosly missing the "seat" vertical stroke at the back.1 The name is almost certain to be the nomen.
1.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (IV 21 a)
Column 5.22
the Turin king list 5.22 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.22 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.22 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King S...tut-ha... he acted as king for ...
nsw-bit s...twt hꜢ ... ir-n.f ...

KingUnknown (57th king)DynastyIX/X (5)
GardinerIV 22Fragment47 + 48
The traces of signs after the initial S29-sign are illegible, and there is not enough space for the reading of swnn as proposed by Černý.1 Despite Gardiner's assertion to the contrary,2 the fibres of fr. 47 and 48 match perfectly,3 and the placement is beyond doubt.4 Unfortunately, the photo of the papyrus does not include fr. 48.
1.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (IV 22 a-b)
2.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (IV 22 c)
3.   Beckerath 1966: 17-19
4.   Ryholt 1997: , 20
Column 5.23
the Turin king list 5.23 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.23 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.23 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... Neferkara ...
nsw-bit ... nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ ...

KingNeferkara (58th king)DynastyIX/X (6)
GardinerIV 23Fragment47 + 48
The first signs of the first cartouche are unreadable traces,1 followed by a second cartouche with a clear Neferkara. A possible explanation for two cartouches could be a genealogical indication that this king was a son of Neferkara in 5.20, tenatively restored by von Beckerath. Unfortunately, the photo of the papyrus does not include fr. 48.
Restoration
Beckerath 1966: 19

Hieroglyphic restoration of 5.23 the Turin king list by Beckerath 1966: 19

The Dual King Khety son of Neferkara
nsw-bit ẖty zꜢ nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ
1.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (IV 23 a) simply notes: "scanty and illegible traces."
Column 5.24
the Turin king list 5.24 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.24 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.24 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Mery... Khety ...
nsw-bit mry ... ẖty ...

KingMery.. Khety (59th king)DynastyIX/X (7)
GardinerIV 24Fragment47 + 48
If the first sign is an U7 (mr), it is larger than normal, and more to the right than usual, as noted by Gardiner.1 The throne- and birth-names are combined into one cartouche.2 Unfortunately, the photo of the papyrus does not include fr. 48.
1.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (IV 24 a)
2.   Beckerath 1966: 19
Column 5.25
the Turin king list 5.25 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.25 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.25 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Shed..y ...
nsw-bit šd...y ...

KingShed..y (60th king)DynastyIX/X (8)
GardinerIV 25Fragment47 + 48 + 36
The addition of fr. 361 adds the ending of the name, which Gardiner recorded as unplaced.2 Unfortunately, the photo of the papyrus does not include fr. 48 and fr. 36.
1.   Beckerath 1966: 18-19.
2.   Gardiner 1959: 19, pl. IX
Column 5.26
the Turin king list 5.26 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.26 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 5.26 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King H..... months ...
nsw-bit ḥ..... Ꜣbdw ...

KingH... (61st king)DynastyIX/X (9)
GardinerIV 26Fragment47 + 48 + 36
The recto of fr. 36 was mistaken for the verso by Lepsius and Wilkinson.1 Unfortunately the hieratic signs are not available, as fr. 48 and fr. 36 are not included in the photo of the papyrus.
1.   Gardiner 1959: 19, pl. IX (unplaced fragments).

Bibliography

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———. 1966. ‘Die Dynastie Der Herakleopoliten (9./10. Dynastie)’. ZÄS 93: 13–20.
———. 1984. ‘Bemerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus und zu den Dynastien der ägyptischen Geschichte’. Studien Zur Altägyptischen Kultur 11: 49–58.
———. 1995. ‘Some Remarks on Helck’s “Anmerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus”’. JEA 81: 225–27.
———. 1999. Handbuch Der Ägyptischen Königsnamen. 2nd ed. MÄS 49. Mainz: von Zabern.
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———. 1959. The Royal Canon of Turin. Oxford: Griffith Institute.
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Heagy, Thomas C. 2014. ‘Who Was Menes?’ Archéo-Nil 24: 59–92.
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———. 1992. ‘Anmerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus’. Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur 19: 151–216.
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———. 1979. ‘P. Turin N.1847, Vso.’ In Ramesside Inscriptions, 2:827–44. Oxford: Blackwell.
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Málek, Jaromír. 1982. ‘The Original Version of the Royal Canon of Turin’. JEA 68: 93–106.
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Terms & information

Manetho – An Egyptian priest who wrote Aegyptiaca, “the History of Egypt” in the third century BC, and has ever since been the source for the chronology of the kingdom.

Epitome – Manetho’s original was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the king list.

Fibre correspondence – finding the horizontal and/or vertical position of a fragment by visually aligning the papyrus fibres.

Lacuna – a gap in the papyrus where the text is lost.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Ligature – a combination of two or more signs or letters into a single symbol.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – a cursive form of the hieroglyphic signs and ligatures

Transliteration – To translate hieroglyphs they need to be converted into a readable alphabetic script. This is known as transliteration, and use letters not normally present on keyboards:
Ꜣ Ꜥ ḥ ḫ ẖ š ḳ ṯ ḏ

The Dual King – The title of the king of all of Egypt, also presented as King of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

JSesh – I highly recommend JSesh Hieroglyphic Editor by Serge Rosmorduc, which is the best editor to use for hieroglyphic texts of any kind. It is also completely free.

Kinglists

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