Turin king list: Column 9

Quick navigation
Column
30 rows — 30 kings.

Thirty rows with the names of thirty kings of the Fourteenth Dynasty. This dynasty was concurrent with the Thirteenth Dynasty.

Table 1: Overview of column 9
RowsRemarksKings
1–30Fourteenth Dynasty30
Quick reference key
ditto markImplied repeating text (ditto marks) is represented in blue.
missingMissing signs that can be restored are represented in grey.
RedSigns written with red ink are presented in red.
...Signs that are lost or unreadable is represented by 3 dots.
Column 9.1
the Turin king list 9.1 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.1 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.1 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Nehesy reigned 0 years, x months, 3 days
nsw-bit nḥsi rnpt 0 Ꜣbdw x hrw 3

KingNehesi (137th king)DynastyXIV (1)
GardinerVIII 1Fragment97
The trace where the papyrus breaks off following the year is been read as a ditto mark, indicating zero years, with the months lost, and only the number of days remaining.1 However, it cannot be excluded that the trace after the year sign should be read as a number rather than a ditto mark, yielding x years, 3 months (and 0 days).2 The figure for number of years could be read as any of 1, 2, 3, 8, 10, 20, 30, or 40.3
1.   Ryholt 1997: 198
2.   Ryholt 2018: 253, fig. 8
3.   ibid.
Column 9.2
the Turin king list 9.2 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.2 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.2 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Khatira ... 3 ...
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-ti-rꜤ ... 3 ...

KingKhakherura (138th king)DynastyXIV (2)
GardinerVIII 2Fragment97
The pestle sign (U33, ti) was certainly an error by the scribe for the very similar oar-sign (P8, ḫrw).1 The spurious name name Khatira can thus be emended Khakherura (ḫa-ḫrw-rꜤ).2
1.   Gardiner 1959: 15 (VIII 2 a). Cf. also Möller, Hieratische Paläographie II, No. 381 vs 401.
2.   Ryholt 1997: 378 (File 14/7)
Column 9.3
the Turin king list 9.3 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.3 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.3 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Nebfaura, reigned 1 year, 5 months, 15 days
nsw-bit nb-fꜢw-rꜤ rnpt 1 Ꜣbdw 5 hrw 15

KingNebfaura (139th king)DynastyXIV (3)
GardinerVIII 3Fragment97
This is the only record of this king, there are no other attestations.1
1.   Ryholt 1997: 379 (File 14/8)
Column 9.4
the Turin king list 9.4 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.4 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.4 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sehabra, he acted as king for 3 years, x months, 1 day
nsw-bit s-ḥb-rꜤ ir.n f m nswyt rnpt 3 Ꜣbd x hrw 1

KingSehabra (140th king)DynastyXIV (4)
GardinerVIII 4Fragment97
The end of a long row in the previous column (8.3) encroach the start of this line. This is the only record of this king, there are no other attestations.1 The end trace of a likely 11/21 days is evident just before the one.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 379 (File 14/9)
Column 9.5
the Turin king list 9.5 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.5 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.5 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Merdjefara reigned 3-4 years ...
nsw-bit mr-ḏfꜢ-rꜤ rnpt 3-4 ...

KingMerdjefara (141st king)DynastyXIV (5)
GardinerVIII 5Fragment97
As the papyrus cuts off after three vertical stokes, the number of years is either 3 or 4.1
1.   Ryholt 1997: 379 (File 14/10)
Column 9.6
the Turin king list 9.6 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.6 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.6 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sewadjkara, 1 year, x months x days
nsw-bit swꜢḏ-kꜢ-rꜤ rnpt 1 Ꜣbdw x hrw x

KingSewadjkara III (142nd king)DynastyXIV (6)
GardinerVIII 6Fragment97
The months and days are lost, and fr. 75 (containing numbers) placed by Farina1 does not belong here,2 but at the end of column 7 (i.e. 7.10-13).3
1.   Farina 1938: 47
2.   Gardiner 1959: 17 (VIII 6 a)
3.   Ryholt 1997: 21
Column 9.7
the Turin king list 9.7 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.7 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.7 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Nebdjefara reigned 1 year, x months x days
nsw-bit nb-ḏfꜢ-rꜤ rnpt 1 Ꜣbdw x hrw x

KingNeb... (lacuna) (143rd king)DynastyXIV (7)
GardinerVIII 7Fragment98 + 97
This is the only record of this king, there are no other attestations.1
1.   Ryholt 1997: 379 (File 14/12)
Column 9.8
the Turin king list 9.8 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.8 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.8 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Webenra reigned 0 years, x months x days
nsw-bit wbn-rꜤ rnpt 0 Ꜣbdw x hrw x

KingWebenra (144th king)DynastyXIV (8)
GardinerVIII 8Fragment98 + 97
This is the only record of this king, there are no other attestations.1 The unreadable sign after the year notation seem to indicate a reading of zero years.2
1.   Ryholt 1997: 379 (File 14/13)
2.   Ryholt 1997: 198
Column 9.9
the Turin king list 9.9 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.9 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.9 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 1 year, x months ...
nsw-bit ... rnpt 1 Ꜣbdw ...

KingUnknown (145th king)DynastyXIV (9)
GardinerVIII 9Fragment98 + 99 + 97
Only tiny traces of an unreadable name remain, with a reign of one year, the number of months and days are lost.1
1.   Ryholt 1997: 198, 379 (File 14/14)
Column 9.10
the Turin king list 9.10 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.10 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.10 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...djefara reigned 0 years, 4 months ...
nsw-bit ...- ḏfꜢ-rꜤ rnpt 0 Ꜣbdw 4 ...

King...djefara (146th king)DynastyXIV (10)
GardinerVIII 10Fragment98 + 99 + 97
Only a partial name is preserved, the rest is lost. This is the only record of this king, there are no other attestations.1 The lack of space for the number of years before the ditto mark for months indicate zero years.2
1.   Ryholt 1997: 379 (File 14/15)
2.   Ryholt 1997: 198
Column 9.11
the Turin king list 9.11 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.11 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.11 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...benra ... x years, 3 months ...
nsw-bit ...-bn-rꜤ rnpt 3 Ꜣbdw ...

King...benra (147th king)DynastyXIV (11)
GardinerVIII 11Fragment98 + 99 + 97
This is the only record of this king, there are no other attestations.1 The number of years is lost, but the reading of 3 months is likely, as it is placed directly below the previous entry for months (9.10).2
1.   Ryholt 1997: 379 (File 14/16)
2.   Ryholt 1997: 198
Column 9.12
the Turin king list 9.12 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.12 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.12 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Autibra reigned x years, lacuna months, 18 days
nsw-bit Ꜣw-ib-rꜤ ... rnpt x Ꜣbdw wsf hrw 18

KingAutibra (148th king)DynastyXIV (12)
GardinerVIII 12Fragment98 + 100
The lacuna marks that the number of months was lost.1 This is the only record of this king, there are no other attestations.2 The number eight at the end is badly damaged but certain.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 10, 198
2.   Ryholt 1997: 379 (File 14/17)
Column 9.13
the Turin king list 9.13 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.13 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.13 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Heribra, may he live, prosper and be healthy ... 29 days
nsw-bit hr-ib-rꜤ Ꜥnḫ wḏꜢ snb ... hrw 29

KingHeribra (149th king)DynastyXIV (13)
GardinerVIII 13Fragment98 + 100
This is the only record of this king, there are no other attestations.1
1.   Ryholt 1997: 379 (File 14/18)
Column 9.14
the Turin king list 9.14 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.14 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.14 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Nebsenra ... 5 months, 20 days, lacuna ...
nsw-bit nb-sn-rꜤ ... hrw 5 hrw 20 wsf ...

KingNebsenra (150th king)DynastyXIV (14)
GardinerVIII 14Fragment98 + 100
The number of years is lost. The lacuna notation at the end suggest that the records for an unknown number of kings were lost in lacuna.1
1.   Ryholt 1997: 12, 379 (File 14/19 and 14/20)
Column 9.15
the Turin king list 9.15 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.15 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.15 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ..ra. ... 21 days ...
nsw-bit ...rꜤ ... hrw 21

King...ra (151st king)DynastyXIV (15)
GardinerVIII 15Fragment101 + 100
The name is lost, only the number of days remain. The papyrus break off, but it is clear that the number could be in the 21-24 days range.
Column 9.16
the Turin king list 9.16 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.16 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.16 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sekheperenra reigned 0 years, 2 months, 1-4 days ...
nsw-bit s-ḫpr-n-rꜤ ... rnpt 0 Ꜣbdw 2 hrw 1-4

KingSekheperenra (152nd king)DynastyXIV (16)
GardinerVIII 16Fragment101 + 100
The dot after the year signs is a clear indication that the years should be read as zero.1 Only a 1 is preserved for the number of days, but any number from 1-4 could have stood where the papyrus breaks off.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 198.
Column 9.17
the Turin king list 9.17 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.17 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.17 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Djedkherura reigned 0 years, 2 months, 5 days
nsw-bit ḏd-ḫrw-rꜤ ... rnpt 0 Ꜣbd 2 hrw 5

KingDjedkherura (153rd king)DynastyXIV (17)
GardinerVIII 17Fragment101 + 100
The dot after the year signs is a clear indication that the years should be read as zero.1 This is the only record of this king, there are no other attestations.2
1.   Ryholt 1997: 198.
2.   Ryholt 1997: 379 (File 14/23)
Column 9.18
the Turin king list 9.18 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.18 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.18 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sankhibra, ... 19 days ...
nsw-bit s.Ꜥnḫ-ib-rꜤ ... hrw 19

KingSankhibra (154th king)DynastyXIV (18)
GardinerVIII 18Fragment101 + 102 + 69
This is the only record of this king, there are no other attestations.1 The year and month numbers are lost, and the days number can be 10 or 20, followed by the sublinear tail of a nine, yielding a probable 19 days, or less likely 29.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 397 (File 14/24)
2.   Ryholt 1997: 198
Column 9.19
the Turin king list 9.19 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.19 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.19 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Nefertum...ra ... 18 days
nsw-bit nfr-tm-rꜤ ... hrw 18

KingNefertum...ra (155th king)DynastyXIV (19)
GardinerVIII 19Fragment101 + 102 + 69
This is the only record of this king, there are no other attestations.1
1.   Ryholt 1997: 397 (File 14/25)
Column 9.20
the Turin king list 9.20 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.20 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.20 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sekhem...ra, he acted as king for ... months ...
nsw-bit sḫm-...-rꜤ ir.n ... ns.t ... Ꜣbd

KingSekhem...ra (156th king)DynastyXIV (20)
GardinerVIII 20Fragment101 + 103 + 104 + 69
Column 9.21
the Turin king list 9.21 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.21 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.21 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Kakemura, ... year ...
nsw-bit kꜢ-km.w-rꜤ ... rnpt ...

KingKakemu..ra (157th king)DynastyXIV (21)
GardinerVIII 24Fragment101 + 103 + 104
Column 9.22
the Turin king list 9.22 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.22 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.22 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Neferibra x years ...
nsw-bit nfr-ib-rꜤ ...s rnpt ...

KingNeferibra (158th king)DynastyXIV (22)
GardinerVIII 22Fragment101 + 103 + 104
Column 9.23
the Turin king list 9.23 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.23 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.23 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King I...ra, may he live, prosper and be healthy, x years ...
nsw-bit i-...-rꜤ Ꜥnḫ wḏꜢ snb rnpt ...

KingI...ra (159th king)DynastyXIV (23)
GardinerVIII 23Fragment101 + 103
Ibscher added a tiny fragment to fr. 101 here that is not present in Lepsius.1
1.   Compare fr. 101 in Farina 1938: pl. VIII to Lepsius, Auswahl, pl. V
Column 9.24
the Turin king list 9.24 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.24 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.24 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Khakara ...
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-kꜢ-rꜤ ...

KingKhakara (160th king)DynastyXIV (24)
GardinerVIII 24Fragment101 + 123 + 103
The horizontal fibres of fr. 123 corresponds with fr. 101.1 The upper part of fr. 1232 must have been added by Ibscher or Farina,3 as it is not present in Lepsius.4 However, Ryholt did not comment on the removal of this small fragment, which I have marked as unplaced fr. 123* for now.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 24
2.   Gardiner 1959: pl. III
3.   Farina 1938: pl. IX.
4.   Lepsius, Auswahl, pl. VI.
Column 9.25
the Turin king list 9.25 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.25 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.25 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Aakara ...
nsw-bit ꜤꜢ-kꜢ-rꜤ ...

KingAakara (161st king)DynastyXIV (25)
GardinerVIII 25Fragment101 + 123
The traces where the fragment break off is likely the beginning of a nomen, but cannot be identified.1
1.   Ryholt 1997: 99
Column 9.26
the Turin king list 9.26 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.26 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.26 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Semenenra Hapu...
nsw-bit s-mn-n-rꜤ hp.w ...

KingSemenenra Hapu (162nd king)DynastyXIV (26)
GardinerVIII 26Fragment101 + 123
The N21-sign (r) tentatively read by Gardiner, can be confidently read as the determinative Y1-sign.1
1.   Ryholt 1997: 99
Column 9.27
the Turin king list 9.27 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.27 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.27 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Djedkara Nebnati ...
nsw-bit ḏd-kꜢ-rꜤ nb-nꜤ-ti ...

KingDjedkara ꜤAnati (163rd king)DynastyXIV (27)
GardinerVIII 27Fragment101 + 123
The V30-sign (nb) is likely a mistake for O29 (ꜤꜢ),1 which would yield the correct name ꜤAnati (ꜤꜢ-nꜤti),2 and the last sign is the determinative of a seated man (A1), not the walking legs (D54) which are very similar in hieratic.3
Restoration
Ryholt 1997: 99f.

Hieroglyphic restoration of 9.27 the Turin king list by Ryholt 1997: 99f.

nsw-bit ḏd-kꜢ-rꜤ ꜤꜢ-nꜤti ...
The Dual King Djedkara ꜤAnati ...
1.   Compare Möller, Hieratische Paläographie II, No. 510 vs. 363B
2.   Ryholt 1997: 99
3.   Compare Möller, Hieratische Paläographie II, No. 119 vs. 33B
Column 9.28
the Turin king list 9.28 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.28 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.28 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...ka... Bebnum
nsw-bit ...-kꜢ bbnm ...

King...kara Bebnum (164th king)DynastyXIV (28)
GardinerIX 30Fragment123
The last sign is the determinative of a seated man (A1),1 not the walking legs (D54) which are very similar in hieratic.2
1.   Ryholt 1997: 99
2.   Compare Möller, Hieratische Paläographie II, No. 119 vs. 33B
Column 9.29
the Turin king list 9.29 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.29 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.29 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (165th king)DynastyXIV (29)
GardinerIX 31Fragment123
Only traces of the cartouche close remain, the name is lost.
Column 9.30
the Turin king list 9.30 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.30 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 9.30 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (166th king)DynastyXIV (30)
The papyrus is lost.

Bibliography

Allen, James P. 1999. ‘The Turin Kinglist’. BASOR 315: 48–53.
Beckerath, Jürgen von. 1964. Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten. Glückstadt: Augustin.
———. 1966. ‘Die Dynastie Der Herakleopoliten (9./10. Dynastie)’. ZÄS 93: 13–20.
———. 1984. ‘Bemerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus und zu den Dynastien der ägyptischen Geschichte’. Studien Zur Altägyptischen Kultur 11: 49–58.
———. 1995. ‘Some Remarks on Helck’s “Anmerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus”’. JEA 81: 225–27.
———. 1999. Handbuch Der Ägyptischen Königsnamen. 2nd ed. MÄS 49. Mainz: von Zabern.
Farina, Giulio. 1938. Il Papiro dei re, restaurato. Rome: G. Bardi.
Gardiner, Alan Henderson. 1957. Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs. 3d ed., rev. Oxford: Griffith Institute.
———. 1959. The Royal Canon of Turin. Oxford: Griffith Institute.
Goedicke, Hans. 1956. ‘King ḤwḏfꜢ?’ JEA 42: 50–53.
Griffith, Francis Llewellyn. 1897. The Petrie Papyri: Hieratic Papyri from Kahun and Gurob. 2 vols. London: Quaritch.
Heagy, Thomas C. 2014. ‘Who Was Menes?’ Archéo-Nil 24: 59–92.
Helck, Wolfgang. 1956. Untersuchungen zu Manetho und den ägyptischen Königslisten. UGAÄ 18. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
———. 1992. ‘Anmerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus’. Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur 19: 151–216.
Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson. 1967. ‘Byblos, Egypt, and Mari in the Early Second Millennium B.C.’ Orientalia 36 (1): 39–54.
———. 1979. ‘P. Turin N.1847, Vso.’ In Ramesside Inscriptions, 2:827–44. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lepsius, Carl Richard. 1842. Auswahl Der Wichtigsten Urkunden Des Aegyptischen Alterthums. Leipzig: Wigand.
Málek, Jaromír. 1982. ‘The Original Version of the Royal Canon of Turin’. JEA 68: 93–106.
Meyer, Eduard. 1904. Aegyptische Chronologie. Berlin: Verl. der Königl. Akad. der Wiss.
Möller, Georg. 1927. Hieratische Paläographie. Die aegyptische Buchschrift in ihrer Entwicklung von der fünften Dynastie bis zur römischen Kaiserzeit. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Osnabruck: Otto Zeller.
Murnane, William J. 1977. Ancient Egyptian Coregencies. Chicago: Oriental Institute.
Petrie, William M. Flinders. 1900. Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty. Memoirs of the Egypt Exploration Fund 18. London: Egypt Exploration Fund.
Redford, Donald B. 1986. Pharaonic King-Lists, Annals and Day-Books. Mississauga: Benben Publications.
Rougé, Emmanuel de. 1866. ‘Recherches Sur Les Monuments Qu’on Peut Attribuer Aux Six Premières Dynasties de Manéthon’. MIE 25 (2): 225–376.
Ryholt, Kim. 1997. The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800-1550 B.C. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.
———. 1998. ‘Hotepibre, a Supposed Asiatic King in Egypt with Relations to Ebla’. BASOR 311: 1–6.
———. 2000. ‘The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-List and the Identity of Nitocris’. ZÄS 127: 87–100.
———. 2004. ‘The Turin King-List’. Ägypten Und Levant 14: 135–55.
———. 2008. ‘King Seneferka in the King-Lists and His Position in the Early Dynastic Period’. Journal of Egyptian History 1: 159–73.
———. 2018. ‘Seals and History of the 14th and 15th Dynasties’. The Hyksos Ruler Khyan and the Early Second Intermediate Period in Egypt : Problems and Priorities of Current Research, ErghÖJh 17: 235–76.
Schneider, Thomas. 2006. ‘The Relative Chronology of the Middle Kingdom and the Hyksos Period (Dyns. 12–17)’. In Ancient Egyptian Chronology, 168–96. Handbook of Oriental Studies 83. Leiden, Boston: Brill.
———. 2018. ‘Khyan’s Place in History. A New Look at the Chronographic Tradition’. The Hyksos Ruler Khyan and the Early Second Intermediate Period in Egypt : Problems and Priorities of Current Research, ErghÖJh 17: 277–85.
Sethe, Kurt. 1904. ‘Zur zeitlichen Festlegung der zwölften Dynastie und zur Benutzung ägyptischer Sothisdaten überhaupt’. ZÄS 41: 38–42.
———. 1905. Beiträge zur ältesten Geschichte Ägyptens. UGAÄ 3. Leipzig: Hinrichs.
Wilkinson, John Gardner. 1851. The Fragments of the Hieratic Papyrus at Turin. 2 vols. London: Richards.
Terms & information

Manetho – An Egyptian priest who wrote Aegyptiaca, “the History of Egypt” in the third century BC, and has ever since been the source for the chronology of the kingdom.

Epitome – Manetho’s original was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the king list.

Fibre correspondence – finding the horizontal and/or vertical position of a fragment by visually aligning the papyrus fibres.

Lacuna – a gap in the papyrus where the text is lost.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Ligature – a combination of two or more signs or letters into a single symbol.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – a cursive form of the hieroglyphic signs and ligatures

Transliteration – To translate hieroglyphs they need to be converted into a readable alphabetic script. This is known as transliteration, and use letters not normally present on keyboards:
Ꜣ Ꜥ ḥ ḫ ẖ š ḳ ṯ ḏ

The Dual King – The title of the king of all of Egypt, also presented as King of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

JSesh – I highly recommend JSesh Hieroglyphic Editor by Serge Rosmorduc, which is the best editor to use for hieroglyphic texts of any kind. It is also completely free.

Kinglists

CC BY   Creative Commons
license


All content on this website is free to copy, redistribute and adapt in any medium or format, provided you give the appropriate credit. Yes, this includes images and texts. Keep information free!

This page was retrieved from PHARAOH.SE
PHARAOH.SE
© 2011–2021 by Peter Lundström — Some Rights Reserved — V. 4.0
Disclaimer: Content should be accurate, but errors and/or omissions are possible.
All information is provided "as is". Always check the sources! Best on a large screen.