Minor Egyptian king lists

There are a number of king lists that are not as well known as the larger canons that were inscribed on temple walls. They come from various periods but all have in common that they contain the names of at least five kings.

Abydos king list of Ramesses II

30 pharaohs

Date: 19th dynasty

Provenance: Temple of Ramesses II at Abydos → Kingston Lacy → British Museum

Description: The memorial temple of Ramesses II at Abydos was excavated by William John Bankes in 1818, where this tablet of kings was found. It was acquired by the British Museum in 1837, as inventory number EA 117. It was inspired by the nearby Abydos Canon, the king list of Ramesses’ father Seti I, with the names of Ramesses added, and likely adorned one of the walls of the temple. While most of the inscribed names are identical to those in the Abydos Canon, some use slightly different signs.

  • Top row: same sequence as 40–52 on the Abydos Canon. The names are badly damaged.
  • Middle row: same sequence as 61–76 on the Abydos Canon, + Ramesses II’s prenomen and nomen
  • Bottom row: repeating Ramesses II’s nomen and prenomen.
Ramesses II king list from Abydos, now in the British Museum
Content of the tablet
# Top row right to left AC # Middle row right to left AC
1 Netjerka(ra) 40 14 Nebukaura 61
2 Menka(ra) 41 15 Khakheperura 62
3 Neferkara 42 16 Khakaura 63
4 Neferka(ra) Nebseneb 43 17 Nimaatra 64
5 Djedkara Shemai 44 18 Maakherura 65
6 Neferkara Khendu 45 19 Nebpehtyra 66
7 Merenhor 46 20 Djoserkara 67
8 Seneferka(ra) 47 21 Aakheperkara 68
9 Nikara 48 22 Aakheperenra 69
10 Neferkara Tereru 49 23 Menkheperra 70
11 Neferka(Hor) 50 24 Aakheperura 71
12 Neferka(ra) Pepiseneb 51 25 Menkheperura 72
13 Neferkamin Anu 52 26 Nebmaatra 73
27 Djoserkheperu Setepenamun 74
28 Menpehtyra 75
29 Menmaatra 76
30 Usermaatra
31 Ramessu Meryamun

Bibliography

  • Bankes., 1820. National Trust NT 1257799. Unpublished.
  • Champollion, J. F., 1826. Lettres, plate 6
  • Young, T., 1828. Hieroglyphics, Vol. 2: plate 47
  • d’Avennes, Prisse., 1847. Monuments, plate 2

Tomb of Amenmose

12 pharaohs

Date: Early Nineteenth Dynasty (Seti I)

Provenance: Dra Abu el-Naga, TT 19, broad hall, left half, rear wall, middle register

Description: First prophet of ‘Amenophis of the Forecourt’, i.e. the funerary cult of Amenhotep I. The scene shows Amenhotep and a priest before two rows of six seated kings with two queens inset before the kings. Preserved by the drawings of Champollion and Rosellini. The scene was severely damaged already in the 1800s, now presumed destroyed.

Names in the scene

Bibliography

  • Rosellini 1832. I Monumenti dell’ Egitto e della Nubia. Plate 45 (3).
  • Champollion 1844. Monuments de l’Égypte et de la Nubie, plate 184 (2)
  • Foucart, George., 1935. Le tombeau d’Amonmos, MIFAO, 57.4: plates 11, 12.
  • Porter and Moss. Topographical Bibliography, I2: 33 (4 II 1)
  • Kitchen, Kenneth A., 1980. Ramesside Inscriptions, Vol. 3: 392.

Tomb of Inherkhau

7 pharaohs

Date: Reign of Ramesses IV (dynasty XX)

Provenance: Deir el-Medinah, TT 359, room F

Description: Remains of deceased censing and wife before two rows of seated kings, queens, and princes, with Huy, painter, at end of lower row. Now mostly lost, but preserved by Lepsius’ drawing.

Names in the scene
# Pharaoh Name in cartouche
1 Amenhotep I Djoserkara (prenomen)
2 Ahmose I Nebpehtyra
3 Siamun (prince)
4 Ramesses I Menpehtyra
5 Mentuhotep II Nebhapetra
6 Amenhotep I Amenhotep (nomen)
7 Seqenenra Seqenenra
8 Ramesses IV Heqamaatra Setepenamun
9 Unreadable
10 Thutmose II Aakheperkara

Bibliography

  • Lepsius, K. R., 1849. Denkmaeler aus Aegypten, Vol. 3: plate 2d
  • Porter and Moss. Topographical Bibliography, Vol. 1: 422 (4)
  • Photo gallery at IFAO Deir el Medina archive: Photo gallery of the list , and TT359.

Giza king list

6 pharaohs

Date: Dynasty V

Provenance: Giza Mastaba G1011 pit C - JE 37734 - Museum of Fine Arts Boston (Accession no. 13.4301)

Description: The Giza writing board was made of polished cedar wood and gypsum, presenting a short list of six pharaohs from different dynasties.

Names on the board, bottom to top

Name in cartouche Pharaoh Dynasty
Bedjau Hotepsekhemwy II
Teti Sekhemkhet III
Radjedef Radjedef IV
Khafra Khafra IV
Sahura Sahura V
Neferirkara Neferirkara I Kakai V

Bibliography

  • Brovarski, E., 1987. Two Old Kingdom writing boards from Giza. ASAE, 71: 27-54, pl. 1.
  • Reisner, G., 1910. A Scribe’s Tablet found by the Hearst Expedition at Giza. ZÄS, 48: 113-114.
  • Porter and Moss., 1974. Topographical Bibliography, Vol. 32: 52

King list of Den

5 pharaohs

Date: Reign of Den (Dynasty I)

Provenance: Abydos tomb T

Description: Seal impression containing a sequence of six names: Narmer, Aha, Djer, Djet, Den, and (queen) Merneith. This is a clear indication that Narmer founded the dynasty. The inclusion of queen Merneith suggests that she acted as regent for Den when he was young.

Seal from tomb of Den

Bibliography

  • Dreyer, G., 1986. Ein Siegel der frühzeitlichen Köningsnekropole van Abydos. MDAIK, 43: 33-43. Abb. 2-3. Taf. 4-5
  • Kaiser W., 1986. Zum Siegel mit frühen Königsnamen von Umm el-Qaab. MDAIK, 43: 115-119; Abb. 1-2.

King list of Qa’a

8 pharaohs

Date: Reign of Qa’a (Dynasty I)

Provenance: Abydos tomb Q

Description: Seal impression containing a sequence of eight names: Narmer, Aha, Djer, Wadj, Den, Anedjib, Semerkhet, and Qaa. This seal confirms that Narmer was the first king of the dynasty, as on the Den seal (above.) Queen Merneith’s name is absent, which seems to further confirm that she acted as regent for a young Den.

Seal from tomb of Qaa at Abydos

Bibliography

  • Dreyer G. et. al., 1996. Umm el-Qaab. Nachuntersuchungen im frühzeitlichen Königsfriedhof. 7./8. Vorbericht. MDAIK, 52: Abb. 26. Taf. 14 b, c.

Wadi Hammamat king list

5 pharaohs

Date: Dynasty XII-XIII

Provenance: Wadi Hammamat rock inscription

Description: The rock inscription at Wadi el-Fawachir in Wadi Hamamat consists of with five royal names and a short honorary prayer. Based on paleography, it is generally thought that the list was not contemporary with the fourth dynasty, but rather created during the twelfth or thirteenth dynasties – some 600 years later. The five names are (rightto left): Khufu, Radjedef, Khafra, Hordjedefra, and Baufra.

Wadi Hammamat rock inscription

Bibliography

  • Drioton, E., 1954. Une Liste des Rois de la IV Dynastie dans l’Ouadi Hammamat. BSFE, 16: 41-49.
  • Janosi, P., 2005. Giza in der 4. Dynastie. Die Baugeschichte und Belegung einer Nekropole des Alten Reiches, Vol. 1: 64-65.

The Royal Annals

26 pharaohs

Date: Dynasty V

Provenance: unknown, maybe Memphis

Description: The seven surviving fragments of a stele known as the Royal Annals of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt include the Palermo Stone and its associated fragments. The stele contained a list of the kings of Egypt from predynastic kings through to the early part of the Fifth Dynasty and noted significant events in each year of their reigns. Because most of the stele is missing, the names that could be found on it is lost, but can be inferred by counting their known or assumed length of reign. This is obviously not a guarantee that a certain name was actually found on here.

The Royal Annals

Names in the Annals

Fragment Names found Implicit names
Palermo Predynastic: Imikhet, Wenegbu, Niheb, Tiu, Itjiesh, Khaiu, and Seka
Dynastic: Sneferu, Shepseskaf,
.
Cairo 1 Djer, Sneferu, Aha
Cairo 2 Khufu, .....
Cairo 3 Djedefra, .....
Cairo 4 Sneferu, Khufu, .....
Cairo 5 Den Aha
London ..... ......

Bibliography

  • Breasted, James H., 1906. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. 1. Chicago: §§ 76–167.
  • Beckerath, J. von., 1997. Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten. Mainz.
  • Maspero, G., 1915. Le Musée égyptien: recueil de monuments et de notices sur les fouilles d’Egypte, Vol 3. Cairo: 29-53, plates XXIV-XXXI.
  • Sethe, Kurt., 1933. Urkunden des alten Reiches, Vol. 1. Leipzig: 235-249.
  • Wilkinson, T., 2000. Royals Annals of Ancient Egypt. London, New York.

South Saqqara Stone

4 pharaohs

Date: Dynasty VI

Provenance: Saqqara, storeroom south of the pyramid of Queen Iput II.

Description: The South Saqqara Stone is a large basalt stone that was originally inscribed on both sides with annual records of several kings of the Old Kingdom. These annals include the Sixth Dynasty pharaohs Teti, Userkara, Pepi I, Merenra I, and Pepi II.
Unfortunately, the inscriptions were erased when the stone was reused as the sarcophagus lid for queen Ankhenespepi I during Pepi II’s early years. Fortunately, the craftsman erasing the inscription did not do a particularly good job, as faint traces of the original still remain.

The South Saqqara Stone

Bibliography

  • Baud, M & Dobrev, V., 1995. De nouvelles annales de l’Ancien Empire égyptien. Une 'Pierre de Palerme' pour la VIe dynastie. BIFAO, 95: 23-63.

Tomb of Sekhemkara

5 pharaohs

Date: early Dynasty V

Provenance: Giza central field. Tomb 89 of Lepsius (G 8154).

Description: Five consecutive rulers are honoured in an inscription on a false door in his tomb, which is located southeast of the pyramid of his father Khafra. As the eldest son of the pharaoh, he was also Chief Justice and Vizier.

Names in the scene:

1. Khafra     2. Menkaura     3. Shepseskaf     4. Userkaf     5. Sahura

Bibliography

  • Lepsius, Karl R., 1849. Denkmäler aus Ägypten, Vol. 2: pl. 41a.
  • Sethe, Kurt., 1933. Urkunden des alten Reiches, Vol. 1: §15(106), 166.
  • Porter and Moss. Topographical Bibliography, Vol. 32: 233-34.

Tomb of Netjerpunesut (Nesutpunuter?)

6 pharaohs

Date: early Dynasty V

Provenance: Giza, central field, small mastaba (G 8740).

Description: Entrance doorway lintel with the names of six kings.

Urkunden des Alten Reiches, i, 166

Names in the scene:

1. Radjedef     2. Khafra     3. Menkaura     4. Shepseskaf     5. Userkaf     6. Sahura

Bibliography

  • Sethe, Kurt., 1933. Urkunden des alten Reiches, I, §16(107), 166
  • Porter and Moss. Topographical Bibliography, III2, 278
  • Gauthier., 1925. ASAE, 25: 180.
  • Reisner., 1942. A History of the Giza Necropolis, Vol. 1: 314 (a) Mastaba of Neter-puw-nesuwt.
  • Junker., 1938. Giza III: 51 (no. 50)