The Archaic Period

The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt immediately follows the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt c. 3100 BC. It is generally taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the Protodynastic Period of Egypt until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom.


Dynasty I

# Pharaoh Alternate names Reign (BC)
1 Narmer Menes 2900–
2 Aha Hor-Aha ?–2870
3 Djer Hor-Djer 2870–2823
4 Djet Wadj, Zet, Uadji 2822–2815
5 Den Dewen, Udimu 2814–2772
6 Adjib Anedjib, Enezib 2771–2764
7 Semerkhet 2763–2756
8 Qaa Kaa 2755–2732

Dynasty II

# Pharaoh Alternate names Reign (BC)
1 Hotepsekhemwy Hetepsekhemwy, Hotepsekhemui 2730–?
2 Nebra Raneb, Kakau ?–2700
3 Ninetjer Nynetjer, Banetjer 2700–2660
4 Wadjenes
5 Senedj Sened ?–2610
6 Sekhemib 2650–?
7 Peribsen Seth-Peribsen, Perabsen 2660–2650
8 Sneferka Sekanefer, Neferseka, Seneferka
9 Neferkasokar
10 Hudjefa I
11 Khasekhemwy Khasekhemui 2610–2593

Predynastic kings

# Pharaoh Alternate names Reign (BC)
1 Seka Hsekiu
2 Khayu Iukha
3 Tiu Teyew
4 Tjesh Thesh, Tesh
5 Neheb Niheb
6 Wenegbu Wazner, Wadjenedj
7 Mekh Imykhet



End of page
Kinglists
Ancient historians
Terms & information

OK – Old Kingdom
Dynasties 3-6

MK – Middle Kingdom
Dynasties 11-12

NK – New Kingdom
Dynasties 18-20

SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Dynasties 13-17

Thebes – The Southern capital

Memphis – The Northern capital

Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

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