Africanus

Sextus Julius Africanus (c.160 – c.240) was a Christian historian who wrote a history of the world in five books called Chronographai (Greek: Χpοvοyραφίαι). It started with the creation of the world, and ended in the year 221 AD. Not a single surviving copy exist today, but extracts from it can be found in the Chronicon of Eusebius, who used it extensively.

There are also fragments in Syncellus, Cedrenus and the Chronicon Paschale. It contained material from Manetho's Aegyptiaca, or rather, material from one of the many Epitomes of Aegyptiaca that was made during the 500 years that passed between the two authors.

Syncellus recognized the similarity between Africanus and Eusebius and presented both versions in his Ecloga Chronographica.

Over the centuries many errors must have been transmitted between the original Aegyptiaca and the Epitomes which was most likely used by Africanus. As his Chronicon predates Eusebius' by a century it is generally considered more reliable by Egyptologists.

Due to the fact that the original has not survived is an unsurmountable problem, and all information that can be gleaned, is from copies of copies, which in themselves cannot be entirely relied upon. The amount of errors, omissions and changes that has been incorporated into the text over the 1800 years since it was written, makes it almost impossible to even estimate what was actually written in the original Chronographai.

 

Dynasty 1

8 kings of Thinis, 253 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Μηνης Menes Minis 62 years Narmer
2 Aθωθις Athothis Athothis 57 years Aha
3 Κενκενης Kenkenes Kenkenis 31 years Djer
4 Ουενεφης Ouenephes Uenephis 23 years Djet
5 Ουσαφαιδoς Ousaphaidos Usaphaidus 20 years Den
6 Μιεβιδoς Miebidos Miebidos 26 years Adjib
7 Σεμεμψης Semempses Semempsis 18 years Semerkhet
8 Βιηνεχης Bienekhes Vienekis 26 years Qaa

Dynasty 2

Kings of Thinis

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Βoηθoς Boethos Boithos 38 years Hotepsekhemwy
2 Καιεχως Kaiekhos Kaiechos 39 years Nebra
3 Βίνωθρις Binothris Binothris 47 years Ninetjer
4 Τλας Tlas Tlas 17 years Wadjenes
5 Σεθενης Sethenes Sethenes 41 years Senedj
6 Χαιρης Khaires Chaires 17 years ?
7 Nεφερχερης Nepherkheres Nephercheris 26 years Neferkasokar
8 Σεσωχρις Sesokhris Sesochris 48 years Hudjefa I
9 Χενερης Kheneres Cheneres 30 years Khasekhemwy

Dynasty 3

Kings of Thinis

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Nεχερoφης Nekherophes Necherophes 28 years Nebka
2 Toσoρθρoς Tosorthros Tosorthros 29 years Djoser
3 Tυρεις Tyreis Tyris 7 years Sekhemkhet
4 Mεσωχρις Mesokhris Mesochris 17 years Mesochris
5 Σωυφις Souphis Soephis 16 years ?
6 Toσερτασις Tosertasis Tosertasis 19 years ?
7 Aχης Akhes Aches 42 years ?
8 Σηφoνρις Sephouris Sephuris 30 years ?
9 Kερφερης Kerpheres Cerpheres 26 years ?

Dynasty 4

Kings of Thinis

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Σωρις Soris Soris 29 years Sneferu
2 Σoυφις Souphis Suphis 63 years Khufu
3 Σoυφις Souphis Suphis 66 years Khafra
4 Mενχερης Menkheres Mencheres 63 years Menkaura
5 Ρατoισης Rhatoises Ratoises 25 years Radjedef
6 Bιχερης Bikheres Bicheres 22 years Baufra
7 Σεβερχερης Seberkheres Sebercheres 7 years Shepseskaf
8 Θαμφθις Thamphthis Thamphthis 9 years Thamphthis

Dynasty 5

9 kings of Elephantine, 248 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Ουσερχερης Ouserkheres Usercheres 28 years Userkaf
2 Σεφρης Sephres Sephres 13 years Sahura
3 Νεφερχερης Nepherkheres Nephercheres 20 years Neferirkara I Kakai
4 Σισιρης Sisires Sisires 7 years Shepseskara Netjeruser
5 Χερης Kheres Cheres 20 years Neferefra Isi
6 Ραθουρης Rathoures Rathures 44 years Niuserra Ini
7 Μενχερης Menkheres Mencheres 9 years Menkauhor Kaiu
8 Τανχερης Tankheres Tancheres 44 years Djedkara Isesi
9 Οννος Onnos Onnus 33 years Unas

Dynasty 6

6 kings of Memphis, 203 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Οθοης Othoës Othoes Teti
2 Φιος Phios Phius 53 years Pepi I
3 Μεθουσουφις Methousouphis Methusuphis 7 years Nemtiemsaf I
4 Φιωψ Phiops Phiops 94 years Pepi II
5 Μενφεσουφις Menthesouphis Menthesuphis 1 years Nemtiemsaf II
6 Νιτωκρις Nitokris ♀ Nitocris 12 years Netjerikara

Dynasty 7

70 kings of Memphis ruled for 70 days

Names of the kings not mentioned

Dynasty 8

27 kings of Memphis, 146 years

Names of the kings not mentioned

Dynasty 9

19 kings of Heracleopolis, 409 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Aχθoης Akhthoës Achthoes Wahkara Khety II

Dynasty 10

19 kings of Heracleopolis, 185 years

Names of the kings not mentioned

Dynasty 11

16 kings of Diospolis, 43 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Aμμενεμης Ammenemes Ammenemes Amenemhat I

Dynasty 12

7 kings of Diospolis, 160 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Σεσονχοσις Sesonkhosis Sesonchosis 46 years Senusret I
2 Aμμανεμης Ammanemes Ammanemes 38 years Amenemhat II
3 Σεσωστρις Sesostris Sesostris 48 years Senusret III
4 Λαχαρης Lakhares Lachares 8 years Amenemhat III
5 Aμμερης Ammeres Ammeres 8 years ?
6 Aμμενεμης Ammenemes Ammenemes 8 years ?
7 Σκεμιoφρις Skemiophris ♀ Scemiophris 4 years Neferusobek

Dynasty 13

60 kings of Thebes (Diospolis), 453 years

Names of the kings not mentioned

Dynasty 14

76 kings of Xois, 184 years

Names of the kings not mentioned

Dynasty 15

6 foreign kings from Phoenicia, 284 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Σαιτης Saites Saites 19 years Salitis
2 Βνων Bnon Bnon 44 years Beon
3 Παχναν Pakhnan Pachnan 61 years Apachnas
4 Στααν Staan Staan 50 years Khyan
5 Aρχλης Arkhles Archles 61 years Khamudy
6 Aφοβις Aphobis Aphobis 49 years Apepi

Dynasty 16

32 Grecian shepherd kings, 518 years

Names of the kings not mentioned

Dynasty 17

43 shepherd kings and 43 Theban kings, 151 years

Names of the kings not mentioned

Dynasty 18

16 kings of Thebes (Diospolis), 263 years

The end of the dynasty contain names that cannot possibly be connected with certainty to a specific king, or to the next dynasty,
most likely due to the confusion during the Amarna period.

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Aμως Amos Amos Ahmose I
2 Χεβρως Khebros Chebros 13 years Thutmose II
3 Αμενωφθις Amenophthis Amenophthis 24 years Amenhotep I
4 Αμενσις Amensis Amensis 22 years Hatshepsut
5 Μισαφρις Misaphris Misaphris 13 years Thutmose I
6 Μισφραγμουθωσις Misphragmouthosis Misphragmuthosis 26 years Thutmose III
7 Τουθμωσις Touthmosis Tuthmosis 9 years Thutmose IV
8 Αμενωφις Amenophis Amenophis 31 years Amenhotep II
9 Ωρος Oros Orus 37 years Amenhotep III
10 Αχερρης Akherres Acherres 32 years ?
11 Ραθως Rhathos Rathos 6 years Tutankhamun
12 Χεβρης Khebres Chebres 12 years ?
13 Aχερρης Akherres Acherres 12 years Neferneferuaten
14 Aρμεσης Armesis Armeses 5 years Horemheb
15 Ραμεσσης Rhamesses Ramesses 1 year ?
16 Αμενωφαθ Amenophath Amenophath 19 years ?

Dynasty 19

6 kings of Thebes (Diospolis), 209 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Σεθως Sethos Sethus 51 years Seti I
2 Ραψακης Rhapsakes Rapsaces 61 years Ramesses II
3 Aμενεφθης Amenephthes Amenephthes 20 years Merenptah
4 Ραμεσσης Rhamesses Ramesses 60 years ?
5 Aμμενεμνης Ammenemnes Ammenemnes 5 years Amenmesse
6 Θουωρις Thouoris Thuris 7 years Tausret

Dynasty 20

12 kings of Thebes (Diospolis), 135 years

Names of the kings not mentioned

Dynasty 21

7 kings of Tanis, 130 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Σμενδης Smendes Smendes 26 years Smendes I
2 Ψουσεννης Psousennes Psusennes 46 years Psusennes I
3 Νεφελχερης Nephelkheres Nephelcheres 4 years Amenemnesut
4 Aμενωφθίς Amenophthis Amenophthis 9 years Amenemope
5 Oσοχωρ Osokhor Osochor 6 years Osochor
6 Ψιναχης Psinakhes Psinaches 9 years Siamun
7 Ψουσεννης Psousennes Psusennes 30 years Psusennes II

Dynasty 22

9 kings of Bubastis, 120 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Σεσονχωσις Sesonkhosis Sesonchosis 21 years Shoshenq I
2 Oσορθων Osorthon Osorthon 15 years Osorkon I
6 Τακελωθις Takelothis Tacelothis 13 years Takelot I

Dynasty 23

4 kings of Tanis, 89 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Πετουβατης Petoubates Petubates 40 years Pedubast I
2 Oσορχω Osorkho Osorcho 8 years Osorkon III
3 Ψαμμους Psammous Psammus 10 years ?
4 Ζητ Zet Zet 31 years ?

Dynasty 24

1 king of Sais

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Βοχχωρις Bokhkhoris Boccoris 6 years Bakenrenef

Dynasty 25

3 Ethiopian kings, 40 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Σαβακων Sabakon Sabacon 8 years Shabaka
2 Σεβιχως Sebikhos Sebichus 14 years Shebitko
3 Ταρκος Tarkos Tarcus 18 years Taharqa

Dynasty 26

9 kings of Sais, 150 years and 6 months

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Στεφινατης Stephinates Stephinates 7 years ?
2 Νεχεψως Nechepsos Nechepsus 6 years ?
3 Νεχαω Nekhao Nechao 8 years ?
4 Ψαμμητιχος Psammetikhos Psammetichus 54 years Psamtik I
5 Νεχαω Nechao Nechao II 6 years Necho II
6 Ψαμμουθις Psammouthis Psammuthis 6 years Psamtik II
7 Ουαφρις Ouaphris Uaphris 19 years Apries
8 Aμωσις Amosis Amosis 44 years Amasis
9 Ψαμμεχεριτης Psammecherites Psammecherites Psamtik III

Dynasty 27

8 Persian kings, 124 years and 4 months

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Καμβυσης Kambyses Cambyses 6 years Cambyses II
2 Δαρειος Dareios Darius 36 years Darius I
3 Ξερξης Xerxes Xerxes 21 years Xerxes I
4 Aρταβανος Artabanos Artabanus 7 months ?
5 Aρταξερξης Artaxerxes Artaxerxes 41 years Artaxerxes I
6 Ξερξης Xerxes Xerxes 2 months ?
7 Σογδιανος Sogdianos Sogdianus 7 months ?
8 Δαρειος Dareios Darius 19 years ?

Dynasty 28

1 king of Sais

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Aμυρτεος Amurteos Amyrteus 6 years Amyrtaeus

Dynasty 29

4 kings of Mendes, 20 years and 4 months

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Νεφεριτης Nepherites Nepherites 6 years Neferites I
2 Aχωρις Akhoris Achoris 13 years Akoris
3 Ψαμμουθις Psammouthis Psammuthis 1 year Psammuthis
4 Νεφεριτης Nepherites Nepherites Neferites II

Dynasty 30

3 kings of Sebennytos, 38 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Νεκτανέβης Nektanebes Nectanebes 18 years Nectanebo I
2 Τεως Teos Teos 2 years Djedhor Teos I
3 Νεκτανεβος Nektanebos Nectanebus 18 years Nectanebo II

Dynasty 31

3 Persian kings

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Ωχος Okhos Ochus 2 years Artaxerxes III
2 Aρσης Arses Arses 3 years Arses
3 Δαρειος Dareios Darius 4 years Darius III


Bibliography


  • and : The Chronography of George Synkellos, (Oxford: 2002)
  • Dindorf, Wilhelm: Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae, (Bonn: 1829)
  • : Manethonis Sebennytae Reliquiae, (Leiden, 1847)
  • Goar, Jacob: Georgii Monachi quondam Syncelli Chronographia, (Paris: 1652)
  • : Fontes historiae religionis aegyptiacae, (Bonn, 1922-25)
  • : Königsbuch der alter Ägypter, 2 Volumes, (Berlin, 1858)
  • : Georgii Syncelli Ecloga Chronographica, (Leipzig: 1984)
  • : Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, II, pp. 512-616 (Paris, 1848)
  • Scaliger, Joseph Justus: Thesaurus Temporum, (Leiden: 1606)
  • : Chronologic des Manetho, (Berlin, 1867)
  • : Manetho, (Cambridge, Mass;London: 1940, Ed. 1964)

 

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