Sextus Julius Africanus (c.160 – c.240) was a Christian historian who wrote a history of the world in five books called Chronographiai, from the creation of the world to 221 CE. The text survive only in extracts by Eusebius.

There are also fragments in Syncellus, Cedrenus and the Chronicon Paschale. It contained material from Manetho’s Aegyptiaca, or rather, material from one of the many Epitomes of Aegyptiaca created during the intervening 500 years that passed between the two authors. The dynastic arrangement often attributed to Manetho was likely a construct from the epitome used by Africanus, as the earlier manuscript of Josephus mention no dynastic breaks by Manetho.

As can be expected, the original text of Aegyptiaca was corrupted long before it reached Africanus, as transmission during the intervening centuries undoubtedly required copies of copies to be created. This copying process naturally introduced errors, omissions and misunderstanding of the source text. There were also outright alterations by religious redactors. The epitome used by Africanus was in all likelyhood a somewhat contemporary copy, i.e. removed from Manetho by some 4-500 years.

As Africanus Chronographiai predates Eusebius’ by a century it is generally considered more reliable by Egyptologists. Syncellus recognized the similarity between Africanus and Eusebius and presented both versions in his Ecloga Chronographica.

Due to the fact that the original has not survived is a big problem, as the information that can be gleaned, is from copies of copies, which in themselves cannot be entirely relied upon.

Dynasty 1

8 kings of Thinis, 253 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Μηνης Menes Minis 62 years Narmer
2 Aθωθις Athothis Athothis 57 years Aha
3 Κενκενης Kenkenes Kenkenis 31 years Djer
4 Ουενεφης Ouenephes Uenephis 23 years Djet
5 Ουσαφαιδoς Ousaphaidos Usaphaidus 20 years Den
6 Μιεβιδoς Miebidos Miebidos 26 years Adjib
7 Σεμεμψης Semempses Semempsis 18 years Semerkhet
8 Βιηνεχης Bienekhes Vienekis 26 years Qaa
The number of kings from the archaeological records of the First Dynasty align with Manetho and also with the Turin king list. However, the individual reigns add up to 263 years, while Africanus' total only give 253 years. This discrepancy (10 years missing) indicate corrupted information in the Epitome used by Africanus, but it could be a simple calculating error.

Dynasty 2

Kings of Thinis

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Βoηθoς Boethos Boithos 38 years Hotepsekhemwy
2 Καιεχως Kaiekhos Kaiechos 39 years Nebra
3 Βίνωθρις Binothris Binothris 47 years Ninetjer
4 Τλας Tlas Tlas 17 years Wadjenes
5 Σεθενης Sethenes Sethenes 41 years Senedj
6 Χαιρης Khaires Chaires 17 years ?
7 Nεφερχερης Nepherkheres Nephercheris 26 years Neferkasokar
8 Σεσωχρις Sesokhris Sesochris 48 years Hudjefa I
9 Χενερης Kheneres Cheneres 30 years Khasekhemwy
The nine kings is the same number of kings present in the Turin king list, but the Abydos king list only have six, while the Saqqara list gives eight. The history of the Second Dynasty is one of the most obscure periods of Ancient Egypt. The scarse evidence and information about this period is reflected in the differing king lists. The individual reigns add up to 300 years, while Africanus’ total is 302.
According to Africanus, the total sum for the First and Second dynasties amount to 555 years (253+302=555), however, the correct sum is 563 (263+300).

Dynasty 3

Kings of Thinis

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Nεχερoφης Nekherophes Necherophes 28 years Nebka
2 Toσoρθρoς Tosorthros Tosorthros 29 years Djoser
3 Tυρεις Tyreis Tyris 7 years Sekhemkhet
4 Mεσωχρις Mesokhris Mesochris 17 years Mesochris
5 Σωυφις Souphis Soephis 16 years ?
6 Toσερτασις Tosertasis Tosertasis 19 years ?
7 Aχης Akhes Aches 42 years ?
8 Σηφoνρις Sephouris Sephuris 30 years ?
9 Kερφερης Kerpheres Cerpheres 26 years ?
The nine kings of Manetho’s Third Dynasty does not agree with the archaeological record, nor with the main New Kingdom king lists, which only support 4-5 kings reigning for less than 100 years, not the vastly inflated total of 214 years of Africanus.
According to Africanus, the total sum for the First through Third dynasties amount to 769 years (253+302+214), however the correct sum is 777 (263+300+214).

Dynasty 4

Kings of Thinis

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Σωρις Soris Soris 29 years Sneferu
2 Σoυφις Souphis Suphis 63 years Khufu
3 Σoυφις Souphis Suphis 66 years Khafra
4 Mενχερης Menkheres Mencheres 63 years Menkaura
5 Ρατoισης Rhatoises Ratoises 25 years Radjedef
6 Bιχερης Bikheres Bicheres 22 years Baufra
7 Σεβερχερης Seberkheres Sebercheres 7 years Shepseskaf
8 Θαμφθις Thamphthis Thamphthis 9 years Thamphthis
The eight kings is the same number of kings present in the Turin king list, but the Abydos king list only have six, while the Saqqara list gives nine. The sum for the individual reigns amount to 284 years, not the total 277 according to Africanus, again suggesting a corrupted epitome.
According to Africanus, the total sum for the kings of the First through Fourth dynasties amount to 1046 years (253+302+214+277), however the correct sum is 1061 (263+300+214+284).

Dynasty 5

9 kings of Elephantine, 248 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Ουσερχερης Ouserkheres Usercheres 28 years Userkaf
2 Σεφρης Sephres Sephres 13 years Sahura
3 Νεφερχερης Nepherkheres Nephercheres 20 years Neferirkara I Kakai
4 Σισιρης Sisires Sisires 7 years Shepseskara Netjeruser
5 Χερης Kheres Cheres 20 years Neferefra Isi
6 Ραθουρης Rathoures Rathures 44 years Niuserra Ini
7 Μενχερης Menkheres Mencheres 9 years Menkauhor Kaiu
8 Τανχερης Tankheres Tancheres 44 years Djedkara Isesi
9 Οννος Onnos Onnus 33 years Unas
The summation have 8 kings ruling for 248 years, however, this is contradicted by listing 9 kings – the same number of kings present in Turin king list. The Abydos- and Saqqara- king lists have 8 kings each, albeit with differing names. The reign total sum amount to 218 years, not 248 as stated. According to Africanus, the total sum for the kings of the First through Fifth dynasties amount to 1294 years (1046+248), however the correct sum is 1279 (1061+218).
These differences is a clear indication that even the New Kingdom sources were corrupted.

Dynasty 6

6 kings of Memphis, 203 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Οθοης Othoës Othoes Teti
2 Φιος Phios Phius 53 years Pepi I
3 Μεθουσουφις Methousouphis Methusuphis 7 years Nemtiemsaf I
4 Φιωψ Phiops Phiops 94 years Pepi II
5 Μενφεσουφις Menthesouphis Menthesuphis 1 years Nemtiemsaf II
6 Νιτωκρις Nitokris ♀ Nitocris 12 years Netjerikara
The sum of the individual reigns is 197, however, Phiops “ whose reign began at the age of 6, ruled continuously up to his hundredth year”, was calculated as 100 instead of 94. The Turin king list detail 13 sequential kings of the Sixth Dynasty without any indication of a dynastic break between the Sixth and Eleventh dynasties. At the same place, the Abydos list contain the names of 23 kings, while the Saqqara list only have 4. This further reinforce that the New Kingdom records were corrupted, or at the very least, incomplete.
According to Africanus, the total sum for the kings of the First through Sixth dynasties amount to 1497 years (1294+203), however the correct sum is 1482 (1279+203). For comparison, the summation for the same six dynasties in the Turin king list only give a total of 955 years, and only 13 kings from Teti to the Ninth Dynasty kings.

Dynasty 7

70 kings of Memphis ruled for 70 days

Names of the kings not recorded
The huge number of kings and dynasties for the First Intermediate Period suggest that a redactor of an Epitome misunderstood and distorted the summation(s) for the rival kings of Memphis and Herakleopolis that followed the Sixth Dynasty. The scarce archaeological record seems to only support one Memphite dynasty, and one Herakleopolite dynasty. The '70 kings ruled for 70 days' is of course an impossibility, and is most likely a corruption of a summation or narrative.

Dynasty 8

27 kings of Memphis, 146 years

Names of the kings not recorded
The preserved summation “together with the aforementioned years (1294), there are 1639 years for these eight dynasties” is incorrectly calculated. The erroneous sum of Africanus for those eight dynasties comes to 1643 (1497+146), curiously 4 years more than the preserved number, and seems to ignore the Seventh Dynasty completely. Furthermore, the correct sum for the first eight dynasties come to 1628 (1482+146), more evidence of a distorted records. Like the other summations for the FIP, the 27 kings recorded in the heading for this dynasty is probably corrupted too, but it is impossible to establish how.

Dynasty 9

19 kings of Heracleopolis, 409 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Aχθoης Akhthoës Achthoes Wahkara Khety II
The entry for the Herakleopolitan dynasty, with all names but one lost. There was probably some sort of commentary to the fact that the records were corrupted or lost, which was misunderstood by the redactor of the epitome.

Dynasty 10

19 kings of Heracleopolis, 185 years

Names of the kings not recorded
It stands to reason that the redactor of the epitome misinterpreted a summation of the Herakleopolitan Ninth Dynasty for a new dynasty, substantiated by the same number of kings (19) for both dynasties, with no names mentioned.

Dynasty 11

16 kings of Diospolis, 43 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Aμμενεμης Ammenemes Ammenemes Amenemhat I
Sixteen kings ruling only 43 years is clearly another error by the redactor of the epitome. Yet another indication is that king Ammenemes was not included in the Tenth or Eleventh dynasties, but rather as an intermediary between the two. A summation of Manetho’s first book is presented here, indicating that a total of 192 kings had ruled the kingdom for 2300 years. These numbers are both incorrect. If we add the number of kings recorded in each dynasty heading, including the 70 kings of the Seventh Dynasty, the total is 200. If we count the individual kings recorded, the total is 201. The total sum of years for the individual kings is 2259, while the total from the dynasty headings is 2280.

According to modern Egyptology, some 90 kings reigned from the First through Eleventh dynasties (approximately 1100 years). The figures by Africanus for dynasties 7-10 are in all likelihood based on a misunderstanding of the text. It is clear that the Seventh Dynasty is a mistake. The kings of Memphis continued rule past the Sixth Dynasty - this could be the 27 kings of Africanus’ Eighth Dynasty. According to Africanus, the next two dynasties were Herakleopolitan, both with 19 kings. It seems probable that the redactor mistook the summation of the Eighth Dynasty and erroneously created a duplicate of the dynasty. The corresponding dynasty in the Turin king list holds 18 kings (5.18-6.9).
Disregarding the duplicated dynasties, Africanus recorded 49 kings from the First through Sixth dynasties, 27 kings of the Memphite Eighth Dynasty, and 19 kings of the Herakleopolitan Ninth Dynasty, and finally, 16 kings of the Eleventh Dynasty, for a total of 111 kings. The 16 kings of the Eleventh Dynasty is an aberration, as contemporary sources show that only seven kings reigned in this dynasty. Removing the 9 extraneous kings, bring the total down to 102 kings.

Dynasty 12

7 kings of Diospolis, 160 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Σεσονχοσις Sesonkhosis Sesonchosis 46 years Senusret I
2 Aμμανεμης Ammanemes Ammanemes 38 years Amenemhat II
3 Σεσωστρις Sesostris Sesostris 48 years Senusret III
4 Λαχαρης Lakhares Lachares 8 years Amenemhat III
5 Aμμερης Ammeres Ammeres 8 years ?
6 Aμμενεμης Ammenemes Ammenemes 8 years ?
7 Σκεμιoφρις Skemiophris ♀ Scemiophris 4 years Neferusobek

Dynasty 13

60 kings of Thebes (Diospolis), 453 years

Names of the kings not recorded
The 453 years figure for this dynasty is clearly excessive, probably a simple copying error, and should probably be emended down to 153. The figures given for the Second Intermediate Period as a shole were likely due to a redactor not understanding the text. We have the figures:

  Dynasty 13       60 kings       453 years
  Dynasty 14       76 kings       184 years
  Dynasty 15         6 kings       284 years
  Dynasty 16       32 kings       518 years
  Dynasty 17       86 kings       151 years

The sheer number of kings and length of the reigns shows that the texts of Manetho were not properly understood by the redactor. It could well be that there was a longer summation of all the kings up to this point, but the context was lost in translation, which would help explain the large number of kings attributed to this period. Perhaps the records available to Manetho was full of lacunae, just like the tattered Turin king list, and further distorted by an incorrect translation.

Dynasty 14

76 kings of Xois, 184 years

Names of the kings not recorded
The figures for this dynasty by Eusebius are identical, though the Armenian version of Eusebius give 484 years for this dynasty, indicating some sort of corruption or perhaps just a simple copying error. The lower figure seems more plausible.

Dynasty 15

6 foreign kings from Phoenicia, 284 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Σαιτης Saites Saites 19 years Salitis
2 Βνων Bnon Bnon 44 years Beon
3 Παχναν Pakhnan Pachnan 61 years Apachnas
4 Στααν Staan Staan 50 years Khyan
5 Aρχλης Arkhles Archles 61 years Khamudy
6 Aφοβις Aphobis Aphobis 49 years Apepi
The 36 years, 7 months reign-length of Apachnas given by Josephus is more plausible than the 61 years given by Africanus. According to Eusebius, this dynasty consisted of an unknown number of Theban kings, and the foreign kings recorded by Africanus instead appeared as his 17th dynasty.

Dynasty 16

32 Grecian shepherd kings, 518 years

Names of the kings not recorded
The large figure of years points a misunderstanding of a summation by the redactor of the epitome, creating an extraneous dynasty in the process.

Dynasty 17

43 shepherd kings and 43 Theban kings, 151 years

Names of the kings not recorded
The redactor of the epitome misunderstood the text by creating two dynasties yet combining them into one, transferring of an identical number of kings to both. Comparing the description of this dynasty by Africanus “43 additional shepherd kings, and kings of Theban Diospolis, 43 in number, total for the reigns of the shepherds and Theban kings, 151 years” to Eusebius “they were shepherds and brothers, foreign kings from Phoenicia, who also seized Memphis”, it is clear that they had contradicting versions of Aegyptiaca, or the text was translated differently by their redactors.

Dynasty 18

16 kings of Thebes (Diospolis), 263 years

The end of the dynasty contain names that cannot possibly be connected with certainty to a specific king, or to the next dynasty,
most likely due to the confusion during the Amarna period.

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Aμως Amos Amos Ahmose I
2 Χεβρως Khebros Chebros 13 years Thutmose II
3 Αμενωφθις Amenophthis Amenophthis 24 years Amenhotep I
4 Αμενσις Amensis Amensis 22 years Hatshepsut
5 Μισαφρις Misaphris Misaphris 13 years Thutmose I
6 Μισφραγμουθωσις Misphragmouthosis Misphragmuthosis 26 years Thutmose III
7 Τουθμωσις Touthmosis Tuthmosis 9 years Thutmose IV
8 Αμενωφις Amenophis Amenophis 31 years Amenhotep II
9 Ωρος Oros Orus 37 years Amenhotep III
10 Αχερρης Akherres Acherres 32 years ?
11 Ραθως Rhathos Rathos 6 years Tutankhamun
12 Χεβρης Khebres Chebres 12 years ?
13 Aχερρης Akherres Acherres 12 years Neferneferuaten
14 Aρμεσης Armesis Armeses 5 years Horemheb
15 Ραμεσσης Rhamesses Ramesses 1 year ?
16 Αμενωφαθ Amenophath Amenophath 19 years ?
The redactor of the Epitome did not understand that this dynasty had four kings named Amenhotep, and also four kings named Thutmose. The similarity of the names made it very difficult to separete the names from each other, especially if coregencies were also mentioned. The individual reigns add up to 262 years, not 263 as per Africanus, and curiously there is no reign mentioned for the first king. Also included is a subtotal: Total 69 years from Amos to Misphragmouthosis, however, the sum of these four reigns is 72. Goar emended Amenophthis’ 24 years to 21 to account for the discrepancy, probably based on the 21 years assigned to this king by Eusebius. This subtotal suggest the presence of a summation, or perhaps a longer narrative. Further indication that the epitomists misinterpreted the text is that at the end of the list we find what can only be Ramesses II and Merenptah of the next dynasty.

Egyptologists long have tried to reconcile the names of the four kings in 10-13 with the obscure Amarna kings, but there are too many discrepancies and inconsistencies to be conclusive. Josephus did not indicate a dynastic break in his list of the kings, but many of the names he supplied are spelled differently from Africanus and Eusebius. The order of kings is identical, however only Josephus indicate that Amesses and Akenkheres were actually Queens. All this, once again, suggest multiple and differing versions of Aegyptiaca.

Dynasty 19

6 kings of Thebes (Diospolis), 209 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Σεθως Sethos Sethus 51 years Seti I
2 Ραψακης Rhapsakes Rapsaces 61 years Ramesses II
3 Aμενεφθης Amenephthes Amenephthes 20 years Merenptah
4 Ραμεσσης Rhamesses Ramesses 60 years ?
5 Aμμενεμνης Ammenemnes Ammenemnes 5 years Amenmesse
6 Θουωρις Thouoris Thuris 7 years Tausret

Dynasty 20

12 kings of Thebes (Diospolis), 135 years

Names of the kings not recorded

Dynasty 21

7 kings of Tanis, 130 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Σμενδης Smendes Smendes 26 years Smendes I
2 Ψουσεννης Psousennes Psusennes 46 years Psusennes I
3 Νεφελχερης Nephelkheres Nephelcheres 4 years Amenemnesut
4 Aμενωφθίς Amenophthis Amenophthis 9 years Amenemope
5 Oσοχωρ Osokhor Osochor 6 years Osochor
6 Ψιναχης Psinakhes Psinaches 9 years Siamun
7 Ψουσεννης Psousennes Psusennes 30 years Psusennes II

Dynasty 22

9 kings of Bubastis, 120 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Σεσονχωσις Sesonkhosis Sesonchosis 21 years Shoshenq I
2 Oσορθων Osorthon Osorthon 15 years Osorkon I
6 Τακελωθις Takelothis Tacelothis 13 years Takelot I

Dynasty 23

4 kings of Tanis, 89 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Πετουβατης Petoubates Petubates 40 years Pedubast I
2 Oσορχω Osorkho Osorcho 8 years Osorkon III
3 Ψαμμους Psammous Psammus 10 years ?
4 Ζητ Zet Zet 31 years ?

Dynasty 24

1 king of Sais

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Βοχχωρις Bokhkhoris Boccoris 6 years Bakenrenef

Dynasty 25

3 Ethiopian kings, 40 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Σαβακων Sabakon Sabacon 8 years Shabaka
2 Σεβιχως Sebikhos Sebichus 14 years Shebitko
3 Ταρκος Tarkos Tarcus 18 years Taharqa

Dynasty 26

9 kings of Sais, 150 years and 6 months

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Στεφινατης Stephinates Stephinates 7 years ?
2 Νεχεψως Nechepsos Nechepsus 6 years ?
3 Νεχαω Nekhao Nechao 8 years ?
4 Ψαμμητιχος Psammetikhos Psammetichus 54 years Psamtik I
5 Νεχαω Nechao Nechao II 6 years Necho II
6 Ψαμμουθις Psammouthis Psammuthis 6 years Psamtik II
7 Ουαφρις Ouaphris Uaphris 19 years Apries
8 Aμωσις Amosis Amosis 44 years Amasis
9 Ψαμμεχεριτης Psammecherites Psammecherites Psamtik III

Dynasty 27

8 Persian kings, 124 years and 4 months

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Καμβυσης Kambyses Cambyses 6 years Cambyses II
2 Δαρειος Dareios Darius 36 years Darius I
3 Ξερξης Xerxes Xerxes 21 years Xerxes I
4 Aρταβανος Artabanos Artabanus 7 months ?
5 Aρταξερξης Artaxerxes Artaxerxes 41 years Artaxerxes I
6 Ξερξης Xerxes Xerxes 2 months ?
7 Σογδιανος Sogdianos Sogdianus 7 months ?
8 Δαρειος Dareios Darius 19 years ?

Dynasty 28

1 king of Sais

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Aμυρτεος Amurteos Amyrteus 6 years Amyrtaeus

Dynasty 29

4 kings of Mendes, 20 years and 4 months

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Νεφεριτης Nepherites Nepherites 6 years Neferites I
2 Aχωρις Akhoris Achoris 13 years Akoris
3 Ψαμμουθις Psammouthis Psammuthis 1 year Psammuthis
4 Νεφεριτης Nepherites Nepherites Neferites II

Dynasty 30

3 kings of Sebennytos, 38 years

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Νεκτανέβης Nektanebes Nectanebes 18 years Nectanebo I
2 Τεως Teos Teos 2 years Djedhor Teos I
3 Νεκτανεβος Nektanebos Nectanebus 18 years Nectanebo II

Dynasty 31

3 Persian kings

#Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
1 Ωχος Okhos Ochus 2 years Artaxerxes III
2 Aρσης Arses Arses 3 years Arses
3 Δαρειος Dareios Darius 4 years Darius III

Syncellus added:
  Here ends the work of Manetho. Subsequent Egyptian chronology is based on Greek historians.
      15 Macedonian kings.


  • and : The Chronography of George Synkellos, (Oxford: 2002)
  • Dindorf, Wilhelm: Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae, (Bonn: 1829)
  • : Manethonis Sebennytae Reliquiae, (Leiden, 1847)
  • Goar, Jacob: Georgii Monachi quondam Syncelli Chronographia, (Paris: 1652)
  • : Fontes historiae religionis aegyptiacae, (Bonn, 1922-25)
  • : Königsbuch der alter Ägypter, 2 Volumes, (Berlin, 1858)
  • : Georgii Syncelli Ecloga Chronographica, (Leipzig: 1984)
  • : Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, II, pp. 512-616 (Paris, 1848)
  • Scaliger, Joseph Justus: Thesaurus Temporum, (Leiden: 1606)
  • : Chronologic des Manetho, (Berlin, 1867)
  • : Manetho, (Cambridge, Mass;London: 1940, Ed. 1964)
End of page
Ancient historians
Terms & information

Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – German for prototype or template, a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script

Dynasty – a sequence of rulers from the same family, from Greek dynasteia (δυναστεια)

OK – Old Kingdom

MK – Middle Kingdom

NK – New Kingdom

SIP – Second Intermediate Period

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