**Sextus Julius Africanus** (c.160 – c.240) was a Christian historian who wrote a history of the world in five books called *Chronographiai*, from the creation of the world to 221 CE. The text survive only in extracts by Eusebius.

There are also fragments in Syncellus, Cedrenus and the Chronicon Paschale. It contained material from Manetho’s Aegyptiaca, or rather, material from one of the many Epitomes of Aegyptiaca created during the intervening 500 years that passed between the two authors. The dynastic arrangement often attributed to Manetho was likely a construct from the epitome used by Africanus, as the earlier manuscript of Josephus mention no dynastic breaks by Manetho.

As can be expected, the original text of Aegyptiaca was corrupted long before it reached Africanus, as transmission during the intervening centuries undoubtedly required copies of copies to be created. This copying process naturally introduced errors, omissions and misunderstanding of the source text. There were also outright alterations by religious redactors. The epitome used by Africanus was in all likelyhood a somewhat contemporary copy, i.e. removed from Manetho by some 4-500 years.

As Africanus Chronographiai predates Eusebius’ by a century it is generally considered more reliable by Egyptologists. Syncellus recognized the similarity between Africanus and Eusebius and presented both versions in his Ecloga Chronographica.

Due to the fact that the original has not survived is a big problem, as the information that can be gleaned, is from copies of copies, which in themselves cannot be entirely relied upon.

8 kings of Thinis, 253 years

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Μηνης | Menes | Minis | 62 years | Narmer |

2 | Aθωθις | Athothis | Athothis | 57 years | Aha |

3 | Κενκενης | Kenkenes | Kenkenis | 31 years | Djer |

4 | Ουενεφης | Ouenephes | Uenephis | 23 years | Djet |

5 | Ουσαφαιδoς | Ousaphaidos | Usaphaidus | 20 years | Den |

6 | Μιεβιδoς | Miebidos | Miebidos | 26 years | Adjib |

7 | Σεμεμψης | Semempses | Semempsis | 18 years | Semerkhet |

8 | Βιηνεχης | Bienekhes | Vienekis | 26 years | Qaa |

The number of kings from the archaeological records of the First Dynasty align with Manetho and also with the Turin king list. However, the individual reigns add up to 263 years, while Africanus' total only give 253 years. This discrepancy (10 years missing) indicate corrupted information in the Epitome used by Africanus, but it could be a simple calculating error.

Kings of Thinis

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Βoηθoς | Boethos | Boithos | 38 years | Hotepsekhemwy |

2 | Καιεχως | Kaiekhos | Kaiechos | 39 years | Nebra |

3 | Βίνωθρις | Binothris | Binothris | 47 years | Ninetjer |

4 | Τλας | Tlas | Tlas | 17 years | Wadjenes |

5 | Σεθενης | Sethenes | Sethenes | 41 years | Senedj |

6 | Χαιρης | Khaires | Chaires | 17 years | ? |

7 | Nεφερχερης | Nepherkheres | Nephercheris | 26 years | Neferkasokar |

8 | Σεσωχρις | Sesokhris | Sesochris | 48 years | Hudjefa I |

9 | Χενερης | Kheneres | Cheneres | 30 years | Khasekhemwy |

The nine kings is the same number of kings present in the Turin king list, but the Abydos king list only have six, while the Saqqara list gives eight. The history of the Second Dynasty is one of the most obscure periods of Ancient Egypt. The scarse evidence and information about this period is reflected in the differing king lists. The individual reigns add up to 300 years, while Africanus’ total is 302.

According to Africanus, the total sum for the First and Second dynasties amount to 555 years (253+302=555), however, the correct sum is 563 (263+300).

According to Africanus, the total sum for the First and Second dynasties amount to 555 years (253+302=555), however, the correct sum is 563 (263+300).

Kings of Thinis

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Nεχερoφης | Nekherophes | Necherophes | 28 years | Nebka |

2 | Toσoρθρoς | Tosorthros | Tosorthros | 29 years | Djoser |

3 | Tυρεις | Tyreis | Tyris | 7 years | Sekhemkhet |

4 | Mεσωχρις | Mesokhris | Mesochris | 17 years | Mesochris |

5 | Σωυφις | Souphis | Soephis | 16 years | ? |

6 | Toσερτασις | Tosertasis | Tosertasis | 19 years | ? |

7 | Aχης | Akhes | Aches | 42 years | ? |

8 | Σηφoνρις | Sephouris | Sephuris | 30 years | ? |

9 | Kερφερης | Kerpheres | Cerpheres | 26 years | ? |

The nine kings of Manetho’s Third Dynasty does not agree with the archaeological record, nor with the main New Kingdom king lists, which only support 4-5 kings reigning for less than 100 years, not the vastly inflated total of 214 years of Africanus.

According to Africanus, the total sum for the First through Third dynasties amount to 769 years (253+302+214), however the correct sum is 777 (263+300+214).

According to Africanus, the total sum for the First through Third dynasties amount to 769 years (253+302+214), however the correct sum is 777 (263+300+214).

Kings of Thinis

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Σωρις | Soris | Soris | 29 years | Sneferu |

2 | Σoυφις | Souphis | Suphis | 63 years | Khufu |

3 | Σoυφις | Souphis | Suphis | 66 years | Khafra |

4 | Mενχερης | Menkheres | Mencheres | 63 years | Menkaura |

5 | Ρατoισης | Rhatoises | Ratoises | 25 years | Radjedef |

6 | Bιχερης | Bikheres | Bicheres | 22 years | Baufra |

7 | Σεβερχερης | Seberkheres | Sebercheres | 7 years | Shepseskaf |

8 | Θαμφθις | Thamphthis | Thamphthis | 9 years | Thamphthis |

The eight kings is the same number of kings present in the Turin king list, but the Abydos king list only have six, while the Saqqara list gives nine. The sum for the individual reigns amount to 284 years, not the total 277 according to Africanus, again suggesting a corrupted epitome.

According to Africanus, the total sum for the kings of the First through Fourth dynasties amount to 1046 years (253+302+214+277), however the correct sum is 1061 (263+300+214+284).

According to Africanus, the total sum for the kings of the First through Fourth dynasties amount to 1046 years (253+302+214+277), however the correct sum is 1061 (263+300+214+284).

9 kings of Elephantine, 248 years

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Ουσερχερης | Ouserkheres | Usercheres | 28 years | Userkaf |

2 | Σεφρης | Sephres | Sephres | 13 years | Sahura |

3 | Νεφερχερης | Nepherkheres | Nephercheres | 20 years | Neferirkara I Kakai |

4 | Σισιρης | Sisires | Sisires | 7 years | Shepseskara Netjeruser |

5 | Χερης | Kheres | Cheres | 20 years | Neferefra Isi |

6 | Ραθουρης | Rathoures | Rathures | 44 years | Niuserra Ini |

7 | Μενχερης | Menkheres | Mencheres | 9 years | Menkauhor Kaiu |

8 | Τανχερης | Tankheres | Tancheres | 44 years | Djedkara Isesi |

9 | Οννος | Onnos | Onnus | 33 years | Unas |

The summation have 8 kings ruling for 248 years, however, this is contradicted by listing 9 kings – the same number of kings present in Turin king list. The Abydos- and Saqqara- king lists have 8 kings each, albeit with differing names. The reign total sum amount to 218 years, not 248 as stated. According to Africanus, the total sum for the kings of the First through Fifth dynasties amount to 1294 years (1046+248), however the correct sum is 1279 (1061+218).

These differences is a clear indication that even the New Kingdom sources were corrupted.

These differences is a clear indication that even the New Kingdom sources were corrupted.

6 kings of Memphis, 203 years

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Οθοης | Othoës | Othoes | — | Teti |

2 | Φιος | Phios | Phius | 53 years | Pepi I |

3 | Μεθουσουφις | Methousouphis | Methusuphis | 7 years | Nemtiemsaf I |

4 | Φιωψ | Phiops | Phiops | 94 years | Pepi II |

5 | Μενφεσουφις | Menthesouphis | Menthesuphis | 1 years | Nemtiemsaf II |

6 | Νιτωκρις | Nitokris ♀ | Nitocris | 12 years | Netjerikara |

The sum of the individual reigns is 197, however, Phiops *“ whose reign began at the age of 6, ruled continuously up to his hundredth year”*, was calculated as 100 instead of 94. The Turin king list detail 13 sequential kings of the Sixth Dynasty without any indication of a dynastic break between the Sixth and Eleventh dynasties. At the same place, the Abydos list contain the names of 23 kings, while the Saqqara list only have 4. This further reinforce that the New Kingdom records were corrupted, or at the very least, incomplete.

According to Africanus, the total sum for the kings of the First through Sixth dynasties amount to 1497 years (1294+203), however the correct sum is 1482 (1279+203). For comparison, the summation for the same six dynasties in the Turin king list only give a total of 955 years, and only 13 kings from Teti to the Ninth Dynasty kings.

According to Africanus, the total sum for the kings of the First through Sixth dynasties amount to 1497 years (1294+203), however the correct sum is 1482 (1279+203). For comparison, the summation for the same six dynasties in the Turin king list only give a total of 955 years, and only 13 kings from Teti to the Ninth Dynasty kings.

70 kings of Memphis ruled for 70 days

Names of the kings not recorded |

The huge number of kings and dynasties for the First Intermediate Period suggest that a redactor of an Epitome misunderstood and distorted the summation(s) for the rival kings of Memphis and Herakleopolis that followed the Sixth Dynasty. The scarce archaeological record seems to only support one Memphite dynasty, and one Herakleopolite dynasty. The *'70 kings ruled for 70 days'* is of course an impossibility, and is most likely a corruption of a summation or narrative.

27 kings of Memphis, 146 years

Names of the kings not recorded |

The preserved summation *“together with the aforementioned years (1294), there are 1639 years for these eight dynasties”* is incorrectly calculated. The erroneous sum of Africanus for those eight dynasties comes to 1643 (1497+146), curiously 4 years more than the preserved number, and seems to ignore the Seventh Dynasty completely. Furthermore, the correct sum for the first eight dynasties come to 1628 (1482+146), more evidence of a distorted records. Like the other summations for the FIP, the 27 kings recorded in the heading for this dynasty is probably corrupted too, but it is impossible to establish how.

19 kings of Heracleopolis, 409 years

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Aχθoης | Akhthoës | Achthoes | — | Wahkara Khety II |

The entry for the Herakleopolitan dynasty, with all names but one lost. There was probably some sort of commentary to the fact that the records were corrupted or lost, which was misunderstood by the redactor of the epitome.

19 kings of Heracleopolis, 185 years

Names of the kings not recorded |

It stands to reason that the redactor of the epitome misinterpreted a summation of the Herakleopolitan Ninth Dynasty for a new dynasty, substantiated by the same number of kings (19) for both dynasties, with no names mentioned.

16 kings of Diospolis, 43 years

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Aμμενεμης | Ammenemes | Ammenemes | — | Amenemhat I |

Sixteen kings ruling only 43 years is clearly another error by the redactor of the epitome. Yet another indication is that king Ammenemes was not included in the Tenth or Eleventh dynasties, but rather as an intermediary between the two. A summation of Manetho’s first book is presented here, indicating that a total of 192 kings had ruled the kingdom for 2300 years. These numbers are both incorrect. If we add the number of kings recorded in each dynasty heading, including the 70 kings of the Seventh Dynasty, the total is 200. If we count the individual kings recorded, the total is 201. The total sum of years for the individual kings is 2259, while the total from the dynasty headings is 2280.

According to modern Egyptology, some 90 kings reigned from the First through Eleventh dynasties (approximately 1100 years). The figures by Africanus for dynasties 7-10 are in all likelihood based on a misunderstanding of the text. It is clear that the Seventh Dynasty is a mistake. The kings of Memphis continued rule past the Sixth Dynasty - this could be the 27 kings of Africanus’ Eighth Dynasty. According to Africanus, the next two dynasties were Herakleopolitan, both with 19 kings. It seems probable that the redactor mistook the summation of the Eighth Dynasty and erroneously created a duplicate of the dynasty. The corresponding dynasty in the Turin king list holds 18 kings (5.18-6.9).

Disregarding the duplicated dynasties, Africanus recorded 49 kings from the First through Sixth dynasties, 27 kings of the Memphite Eighth Dynasty, and 19 kings of the Herakleopolitan Ninth Dynasty, and finally, 16 kings of the Eleventh Dynasty, for a total of 111 kings. The 16 kings of the Eleventh Dynasty is an aberration, as contemporary sources show that only seven kings reigned in this dynasty. Removing the 9 extraneous kings, bring the total down to 102 kings.

According to modern Egyptology, some 90 kings reigned from the First through Eleventh dynasties (approximately 1100 years). The figures by Africanus for dynasties 7-10 are in all likelihood based on a misunderstanding of the text. It is clear that the Seventh Dynasty is a mistake. The kings of Memphis continued rule past the Sixth Dynasty - this could be the 27 kings of Africanus’ Eighth Dynasty. According to Africanus, the next two dynasties were Herakleopolitan, both with 19 kings. It seems probable that the redactor mistook the summation of the Eighth Dynasty and erroneously created a duplicate of the dynasty. The corresponding dynasty in the Turin king list holds 18 kings (5.18-6.9).

Disregarding the duplicated dynasties, Africanus recorded 49 kings from the First through Sixth dynasties, 27 kings of the Memphite Eighth Dynasty, and 19 kings of the Herakleopolitan Ninth Dynasty, and finally, 16 kings of the Eleventh Dynasty, for a total of 111 kings. The 16 kings of the Eleventh Dynasty is an aberration, as contemporary sources show that only seven kings reigned in this dynasty. Removing the 9 extraneous kings, bring the total down to 102 kings.

7 kings of Diospolis, 160 years

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Σεσονχοσις | Sesonkhosis | Sesonchosis | 46 years | Senusret I |

2 | Aμμανεμης | Ammanemes | Ammanemes | 38 years | Amenemhat II |

3 | Σεσωστρις | Sesostris | Sesostris | 48 years | Senusret III |

4 | Λαχαρης | Lakhares | Lachares | 8 years | Amenemhat III |

5 | Aμμερης | Ammeres | Ammeres | 8 years | ? |

6 | Aμμενεμης | Ammenemes | Ammenemes | 8 years | ? |

7 | Σκεμιoφρις | Skemiophris ♀ | Scemiophris | 4 years | Neferusobek |

60 kings of Thebes (Diospolis), 453 years

Names of the kings not recorded |

The 453 years figure for this dynasty is clearly excessive, probably a simple copying error, and should probably be emended down to 153. The figures given for the Second Intermediate Period as a shole were likely due to a redactor not understanding the text. We have the figures:

**Dynasty 13** 60 kings 453 years

**Dynasty 14** 76 kings 184 years

**Dynasty 15** 6 kings 284 years

**Dynasty 16** 32 kings 518 years

**Dynasty 17** 86 kings 151 years

The sheer number of kings and length of the reigns shows that the texts of Manetho were not properly understood by the redactor. It could well be that there was a longer summation of all the kings up to this point, but the context was lost in translation, which would help explain the large number of kings attributed to this period. Perhaps the records available to Manetho was full of lacunae, just like the tattered Turin king list, and further distorted by an incorrect translation.

The sheer number of kings and length of the reigns shows that the texts of Manetho were not properly understood by the redactor. It could well be that there was a longer summation of all the kings up to this point, but the context was lost in translation, which would help explain the large number of kings attributed to this period. Perhaps the records available to Manetho was full of lacunae, just like the tattered Turin king list, and further distorted by an incorrect translation.

76 kings of Xois, 184 years

Names of the kings not recorded |

The figures for this dynasty by Eusebius are identical, though the Armenian version of Eusebius give 484 years for this dynasty, indicating some sort of corruption or perhaps just a simple copying error. The lower figure seems more plausible.

6 foreign kings from Phoenicia, 284 years

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Σαιτης | Saites | Saites | 19 years | Salitis |

2 | Βνων | Bnon | Bnon | 44 years | Beon |

3 | Παχναν | Pakhnan | Pachnan | 61 years | Apachnas |

4 | Στααν | Staan | Staan | 50 years | Khyan |

5 | Aρχλης | Arkhles | Archles | 61 years | Khamudy |

6 | Aφοβις | Aphobis | Aphobis | 49 years | Apepi |

The 36 years, 7 months reign-length of Apachnas given by Josephus is more plausible than the 61 years given by Africanus. According to Eusebius, this dynasty consisted of an unknown number of Theban kings, and the foreign kings recorded by Africanus instead appeared as his 17th dynasty.

32 Grecian shepherd kings, 518 years

Names of the kings not recorded |

The large figure of years points a misunderstanding of a summation by the redactor of the epitome, creating an extraneous dynasty in the process.

43 shepherd kings and 43 Theban kings, 151 years

Names of the kings not recorded |

The redactor of the epitome misunderstood the text by creating two dynasties yet combining them into one, transferring of an identical number of kings to both.
Comparing the description of this dynasty by Africanus *“43 additional shepherd kings, and kings of Theban Diospolis, 43 in number, total for the reigns of the shepherds and Theban kings, 151 years”* to Eusebius *“they were shepherds and brothers, foreign kings from Phoenicia, who also seized Memphis”*, it is clear that they had contradicting versions of Aegyptiaca, or the text was translated differently by their redactors.

16 kings of Thebes (Diospolis), 263 years

The end of the dynasty contain names that cannot possibly be connected with certainty to a specific king, or to the next dynasty,

most likely due to the confusion during the Amarna period.

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Aμως | Amos | Amos | — | Ahmose I |

2 | Χεβρως | Khebros | Chebros | 13 years | Thutmose II |

3 | Αμενωφθις | Amenophthis | Amenophthis | 24 years | Amenhotep I |

4 | Αμενσις | Amensis | Amensis | 22 years | Hatshepsut |

5 | Μισαφρις | Misaphris | Misaphris | 13 years | Thutmose I |

6 | Μισφραγμουθωσις | Misphragmouthosis | Misphragmuthosis | 26 years | Thutmose III |

7 | Τουθμωσις | Touthmosis | Tuthmosis | 9 years | Thutmose IV |

8 | Αμενωφις | Amenophis | Amenophis | 31 years | Amenhotep II |

9 | Ωρος | Oros | Orus | 37 years | Amenhotep III |

10 | Αχερρης | Akherres | Acherres | 32 years | ? |

11 | Ραθως | Rhathos | Rathos | 6 years | Tutankhamun |

12 | Χεβρης | Khebres | Chebres | 12 years | ? |

13 | Aχερρης | Akherres | Acherres | 12 years | Neferneferuaten |

14 | Aρμεσης | Armesis | Armeses | 5 years | Horemheb |

15 | Ραμεσσης | Rhamesses | Ramesses | 1 year | ? |

16 | Αμενωφαθ | Amenophath | Amenophath | 19 years | ? |

The redactor of the Epitome did not understand that this dynasty had four kings named *Amenhotep,* and also four kings named *Thutmose*. The similarity of the names made it very difficult to separete the names from each other, especially if coregencies were also mentioned. The individual reigns add up to 262 years, not 263 as per Africanus, and curiously there is no reign mentioned for the first king. Also included is a subtotal: *Total 69 years from Amos to Misphragmouthosis,* however, the sum of these four reigns is 72. Goar emended Amenophthis’ 24 years to 21 to account for the discrepancy, probably based on the 21 years assigned to this king by Eusebius. This subtotal suggest the presence of a summation, or perhaps a longer narrative. Further indication that the epitomists misinterpreted the text is that at the end of the list we find what can only be Ramesses II and Merenptah of the next dynasty.

Egyptologists long have tried to reconcile the names of the four kings in 10-13 with the obscure Amarna kings, but there are too many discrepancies and inconsistencies to be conclusive. Josephus did not indicate a dynastic break in his list of the kings, but many of the names he supplied are spelled differently from Africanus and Eusebius. The order of kings is identical, however only Josephus indicate that*Amesses* and *Akenkheres* were actually Queens. All this, once again, suggest multiple *and differing* versions of Aegyptiaca.

Egyptologists long have tried to reconcile the names of the four kings in 10-13 with the obscure Amarna kings, but there are too many discrepancies and inconsistencies to be conclusive. Josephus did not indicate a dynastic break in his list of the kings, but many of the names he supplied are spelled differently from Africanus and Eusebius. The order of kings is identical, however only Josephus indicate that

6 kings of Thebes (Diospolis), 209 years

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Σεθως | Sethos | Sethus | 51 years | Seti I |

2 | Ραψακης | Rhapsakes | Rapsaces | 61 years | Ramesses II |

3 | Aμενεφθης | Amenephthes | Amenephthes | 20 years | Merenptah |

4 | Ραμεσσης | Rhamesses | Ramesses | 60 years | ? |

5 | Aμμενεμνης | Ammenemnes | Ammenemnes | 5 years | Amenmesse |

6 | Θουωρις | Thouoris | Thuris | 7 years | Tausret |

12 kings of Thebes (Diospolis), 135 years

Names of the kings not recorded |

7 kings of Tanis, 130 years

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Σμενδης | Smendes | Smendes | 26 years | Smendes I |

2 | Ψουσεννης | Psousennes | Psusennes | 46 years | Psusennes I |

3 | Νεφελχερης | Nephelkheres | Nephelcheres | 4 years | Amenemnesut |

4 | Aμενωφθίς | Amenophthis | Amenophthis | 9 years | Amenemope |

5 | Oσοχωρ | Osokhor | Osochor | 6 years | Osochor |

6 | Ψιναχης | Psinakhes | Psinaches | 9 years | Siamun |

7 | Ψουσεννης | Psousennes | Psusennes | 30 years | Psusennes II |

9 kings of Bubastis, 120 years

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Σεσονχωσις | Sesonkhosis | Sesonchosis | 21 years | Shoshenq I |

2 | Oσορθων | Osorthon | Osorthon | 15 years | Osorkon I |

6 | Τακελωθις | Takelothis | Tacelothis | 13 years | Takelot I |

4 kings of Tanis, 89 years

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Πετουβατης | Petoubates | Petubates | 40 years | Pedubast I |

2 | Oσορχω | Osorkho | Osorcho | 8 years | Osorkon III |

3 | Ψαμμους | Psammous | Psammus | 10 years | ? |

4 | Ζητ | Zet | Zet | 31 years | ? |

1 king of Sais

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Βοχχωρις | Bokhkhoris | Boccoris | 6 years | Bakenrenef |

3 Ethiopian kings, 40 years

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Σαβακων | Sabakon | Sabacon | 8 years | Shabaka |

2 | Σεβιχως | Sebikhos | Sebichus | 14 years | Shebitko |

3 | Ταρκος | Tarkos | Tarcus | 18 years | Taharqa |

9 kings of Sais, 150 years and 6 months

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Στεφινατης | Stephinates | Stephinates | 7 years | ? |

2 | Νεχεψως | Nechepsos | Nechepsus | 6 years | ? |

3 | Νεχαω | Nekhao | Nechao | 8 years | ? |

4 | Ψαμμητιχος | Psammetikhos | Psammetichus | 54 years | Psamtik I |

5 | Νεχαω | Nechao | Nechao II | 6 years | Necho II |

6 | Ψαμμουθις | Psammouthis | Psammuthis | 6 years | Psamtik II |

7 | Ουαφρις | Ouaphris | Uaphris | 19 years | Apries |

8 | Aμωσις | Amosis | Amosis | 44 years | Amasis |

9 | Ψαμμεχεριτης | Psammecherites | Psammecherites | — | Psamtik III |

8 Persian kings, 124 years and 4 months

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Καμβυσης | Kambyses | Cambyses | 6 years | Cambyses II |

2 | Δαρειος | Dareios | Darius | 36 years | Darius I |

3 | Ξερξης | Xerxes | Xerxes | 21 years | Xerxes I |

4 | Aρταβανος | Artabanos | Artabanus | 7 months | ? |

5 | Aρταξερξης | Artaxerxes | Artaxerxes | 41 years | Artaxerxes I |

6 | Ξερξης | Xerxes | Xerxes | 2 months | ? |

7 | Σογδιανος | Sogdianos | Sogdianus | 7 months | ? |

8 | Δαρειος | Dareios | Darius | 19 years | ? |

1 king of Sais

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Aμυρτεος | Amurteos | Amyrteus | 6 years | Amyrtaeus |

4 kings of Mendes, 20 years and 4 months

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Νεφεριτης | Nepherites | Nepherites | 6 years | Neferites I |

2 | Aχωρις | Akhoris | Achoris | 13 years | Akoris |

3 | Ψαμμουθις | Psammouthis | Psammuthis | 1 year | Psammuthis |

4 | Νεφεριτης | Nepherites | Nepherites | — | Neferites II |

3 kings of Sebennytos, 38 years

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Νεκτανέβης | Nektanebes | Nectanebes | 18 years | Nectanebo I |

2 | Τεως | Teos | Teos | 2 years | Djedhor Teos I |

3 | Νεκτανεβος | Nektanebos | Nectanebus | 18 years | Nectanebo II |

3 Persian kings

# | Ancient Greek | Transliteration | Transcription | Reign | Pharaoh |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Ωχος | Okhos | Ochus | 2 years | Artaxerxes III |

2 | Aρσης | Arses | Arses | 3 years | Arses |

3 | Δαρειος | Dareios | Darius | 4 years | Darius III |

Syncellus added:

15 Macedonian kings.

**Adler, William**and**Tuffin, Paul**:*The Chronography of George Synkellos*, (Oxford: 2002)**Dindorf, Wilhelm**:*Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae*, (Bonn: 1829)**Fruin, Robert**:*Manethonis Sebennytae Reliquiae*, (Leiden, 1847)**Goar, Jacob**:*Georgii Monachi quondam Syncelli Chronographia*, (Paris: 1652)**Hopfner, Theodorus**:*Fontes historiae religionis aegyptiacae*, (Bonn, 1922-25)**Lepsius, Karl Richard**:*Königsbuch der alter Ägypter*, 2 Volumes, (Berlin, 1858)**Mosshammer, Alden A.**:*Georgii Syncelli Ecloga Chronographica*, (Leipzig: 1984)**Müller, Karl**:*Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum*, II, pp. 512-616 (Paris, 1848)**Scaliger, Joseph Justus**:*Thesaurus Temporum*, (Leiden: 1606)**Unger, G. F.**:*Chronologic des Manetho*, (Berlin, 1867)**Waddell, W. G.**:*Manetho*, (Cambridge, Mass;London: 1940, Ed. 1964)

- Herodotus

450 BC –*Histories* - Manetho

250 BC –*Aegyptiaca* - Diodorus

50 BC –*Bibliotheca Historica* - Josephus

100 CE –*Against Apion* - Africanus

220 CE –*Chronographai* - Eusebius

325 CE –*Chronicon* - Jerome

380 CE –*Chronicon* - Syncellus

800 CE –*Egloga Chronographai* - Eratosthenes

Probably a forgery (date unknown) - Comparing the sources

Transmission of Manetho

by Africanus et. al.

**Epitome** – Manetho’s original *Aegyptiaca* was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

**Vorlage** – German for *prototype* or *template,* a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.

**Recto** and **verso** – Recto is the *front* side and verso is the *back* side of a written or printed text.

**Cartouche** – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

**Hieratic** – cursive form of hieroglyphic script

**Dynasty** – a sequence of rulers from the same family, from Greek *dynasteia* (δυναστεια)

**OK** – Old Kingdom

**MK** – Middle Kingdom

**NK** – New Kingdom

**SIP** – Second Intermediate Period

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